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Published in J. Herbots editor / R. Blanpain general editor, International Encyclopaedia of Laws - Contracts, Suppl. 29 (December 2000) 1-192. Reproduced with permission of the publisher Kluwer Law International, The Hague.

[For more current case annotated texts by this author, see Bernstein & Lookofsky, Understanding the CISG in Europe, 2d ed. (2003) and Lookofsky, Understanding the CISG in the USA , 2d ed. (2004).]

excerpt from

The 1980 United Nations Convention on Contracts
for the International Sale of Goods

Joseph Lookofsky

 

Index

The numbers refer to the paragraph numbers

Acceptance, 111 et seq.
     by performance of act, 117
     indication of assent, 112
     late, 128 et seq.
     takes effect, 114 et seq.
     time period for, 126
     timely in normal circumstances, 130
     when effective, 33, 132
     withdrawal of, 131
Aircraft, 60
Anticipatory breach, 48, 279
     right to avoid for prospective fundamental breach, 283
     damages for prospective fundamental breach, 284
Applicable law, see also: Private
     international law international sale, 10
     national sale, 9
Arbitration, 16
Arbitration clauses, 311
Auction, 60
Authentic texts, 193
Avoidance,
     and fundamental breach, 136 et seq.
     and the right to terminate, 46
     buyer's obligation to return goods in condition received, 313 et seq.
     buyer's right to avoid for seller's breach, 224 et seq.
     consequences of, 230, 263
     declaration of, 226, 260
     declaration, when effective, 138
     effects of, 309 et seq.
     for fundamental breach, instalment contracts, 286
     limitations regarding goods delivered, 229,262
     relationship to cure, 227
     seller's right to avoid for buyer's breach 259

Basis and measure of liability, 45
Battle of forms, 34, 118 et seq., 122 et seq.
Buyer's obligations, summary of, 237

Caveat emptor, 164, 171
Choice-of-forum clause, 311
Choice-of-law clause, 71, 73,311
Choice-of-law rules: see Private international law
CIF, C&F, 267
Civil-commercial, 57
Conflict of laws: see Private international law
Conformity of goods
     conditions and warranties, 168
     contractual and delictual claims, 162
     cut-off rule, 192 et seq.
     determination, time of, 179 et seq.
     express contractual requirements, 163
     fitness for general purposes, 165
     fitness for particular purposes, 166
     lack of, due to seller's breach, 181
     lack of, excuse for failure to notify, 206 et seq.
     of goods and third party claims, 160 et seq.
     packaging, 169
     partial non-conformity and remedies for breach, 232 et seq.
     prescription convention, 195
     sample or model, 169
     statutes of limitation, 195
     third party claims, 197 et seq.
Consequential damages: see Damages
Consideration under common law, 144
Consignment, notice of, 157
Consumer sales, 23,59
Contract/cover or contract/market
     differential, 289
Contracting States, parties in different, 20, 21
Contracting out, 71-72
Contracting in, 73
Copyright, 201
Counter-offer, 119
Course of dealing, inter-partes, 88
Creditors, buyer's, 64
Cure
     notice of non-conformity required, 185
     relation to avoidance, 183,222
     seller's right to, 182 et seq.
     seller's right to cure after the delivery date, 220
Custom: see Usages

Damages for breach, 287 et seq.
     consequential, 289
     contract/cover differential, 291
     contract/market differential, 293
     foreseeability as a limitation, 290
     incidental, 289
     interest as, 296
     no recovery for avoidable loss, 294
     seller's supply exceeds demand, 292
Death, liability for, 67
Declarations, 49, 327 ff.
Defects, discoverable, 190
     latent, 191
Délai de grâce (grace period), 212, 254
Delegation, 304
Delict, 67
Delictual obligations, 65
Delictual rules, competition between, 69
Delivery
     buyer's taking of, 249
     time of, 158
Direct and indirect loss, 289
Disclaimer and limitation of liability, 63, 171 et seq.
Documents, contracts of carriage, 159

Electricity, 60
Enforceable contracts and remedies for breach, 41
Entry into force, 5, 325, 334
Examination of goods
     buyer's, 186 et seq.
     contract of carriage, 188
     failure to notify seller of non-conformity, 189
Exchange controls, 303
Execution, 60
Exemption: see Liability
Expectation interest, protection of, 41 (n. 30), 289

Fault versus no-fault liability, 45
FOB, FAS, 267
Force majeure, 302
Forced sales, 23
Formal requirements under domestic law, 93,332
Formation of contract, 30 et seq., 99 et seq.
Freedom of contract, 26, 70, 299
Fundamental breach
     avoidance for, 225
     breach, defined, 136

Gap-filling rules, 26
Gaps in the Convention, 79
General provisions, CISG Part III, 135 et seq.
CISG Part I, 74 et seq.
General principles, CISG, 80
Generically defined obligations, 303
Good faith, general principle of, 78 et seq., 178
Good faith purchaser, 64
Goods, 23, 58
Goods to be manufactured, 61(1)
Guarantee, periods of and contractual cut-off's, 194
Guarantee that the goods will remain fit, 181

Hague Convention on the Law Applicable to
     International Sales of Goods (1955), 54, 326
Hague Convention on the Law Applicable to
     Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (1986), 54 (note 2), 55 (note 5), 326
Holidays, 127

Impediment to performance, 301-302
     notice of, 306
Impossibility of performance, 45
Incidental damages: see Damages
Incoterms, 152, 267
Independent communication, 120
Industrial or intellectual property, claims based on, 200
Insolvency, 303
Inspection of goods, 171
Instalment contracts, 279
Interest, 296, 319
International character of CISG, 75(1)
International Economic Order, 4
Interpretation of statements by parties, 81 et seq.
Interpretation of the Convention, 27, 75 et seq.
Interpretation, subjective and objective tests, 84

Legislative history, 77
Liability
     basis, extent and exemptions, 288
     exemptions for failure to perform, 298 et seq.
     no-fault, 210, 252
Loss of bargain, 289

Manufacture, contract for, 61(1)
Matters 'governed by' the Convention but
     not 'expressly settled', 79
Mirror image rule, 34, 118 et seq.
Mistake, 63, 225
Mitigation, 294
     relation to specific performance, 214
Mixed transaction, 61
Model, see Sample or model
Modification or termination
     absence of formal requirements, 142
     contract requiring written, 146
Monetary compensation (see also damages), 45

Nachfrist warning
     avoidance for non-compliance with, 228, 261
     fixing an additional performance period, 219, 258
Nationality of the parties, 57
Negotiations, 81(3)
Non-performance due to failure of 'third person', 304

Obligations of the buyer and seller's
     remedies for reach, 236 et seq.
Obligations of the seller and buyer's
     remedies for breach, 147 et seq.
Obligations of the parties, 38 et seq.
Offer, 100 et seq.
     action in reliance, 109
     addressed to specific persons, 101
     definiteness, 101
     fixing time for acceptance, 108
     indicating irrevocability, 107
     intent to be bound, 101
     invitation to make, 103
     requirement of definiteness, 31
     revocable versus irrevocable, 32
     right to revoke, 105 et seq.
     right to withdraw, 104

Pacta sunt servanda, 16
Parol evidence rule, 86
Parts II and III, relation between, 29, 328
Passing of risk, 265 et seq.
     contracts involving carriage, 269
     goods not identified to the contract, 271
     goods sold in transit, 272
     identification required, 276
     legal effect, 266
     non-carrier cases, 273 et seq.
     seller's fundamental breach, 277
Patent, 201
Payment
     buyer's right to inspect before, 247
     request or formality, 248
     contracts involving carriage, 245 place of, 242
     time of, 243
Performance, adequate assurance of, 282
Personal injury, 67
Place of business, 91
Places of business in different Contracting
     States, 53
     disregarded in exceptional cases, 56
Place of delivery, 151 et seq.
     cases not involving carriage, 155
     contracts of carriage, 153
Preamble: objective of signatory states, 4
Preservation of the goods, 320 et seq.
Price term, contract with 'open', 240
Price fixed by weight, 241
Price, payment of, 238-239
Price-gap, 102
Private international law, 9, 12, 13, 9-10, 21-22,54,67
     and arbitration, 16
     article 95 declaration, 55, 331
     Convention application by, 54, 326
Product liability, 25,65,66 et seq.
Property in goods, 62, 64
Property, damage to buyer's, 68
Proportionate price reduction, 45

Ratifications, 5-6,325
Re-delivery, right to require, 216
Reach, definition of, 133
Rejection, 110, 119
Reliance interest, 289
Remedial relief, three basic forms, 36, 42
Remedies
     for breach of contract by the buyer, 250 et seq.
     for breach of contract by the seller, 208 et seq.
     relationship among, 43, 211, 253
     supplementary remedial regime, 40
Reservations: see Declarations
Restitution, 312
Risk: see Passing of risk

Sacrifice threshold, 302
Sales law as contract law, 1
Sales by auction, 23
Sample or model, 163, 169
Scandinavian States, closely related rules, 330
Services, contract for, 61
Ships, 23, 60
Signature of CISG, 3
Source of supply, seller's intended, 303
Specific performance, 44, 140 et seq.
     buyer's right to require, 213 et seq.
     delivery of substitute goods, 216
     limited by forum law, 215, 257
     require that seller remedy lack of conformity (cure), 218
     seller's right to require, 255 et seq.
Specifications, seller's right to supply, 264
Sphere of application, CISG, 19 et seq., 51 et seq.
Standard form contract, 63
Statements and conduct of parties, 82
Stoppage of goods in transit, 281
Substantive contract legislation, CISG as, 7
Supplementary regime, Convention as, 70
Suspend performance, party's right to, 280

Telegram and telex, 98
Territorial units, States with, 329
Third Party rights, 24
Third-party right or claim, consequences of
     failure to notify, 204
Torts, 65
Trade terms, 267
Trademark, 201
Transmission, delay of error in, 139
Traveaux preparatoires, 77 (note 33)

Unfair contract terms act (UK), 176
Uniform Law on the Formation of Contracts
     for the International Sale of Goods (ULF), 11, 333
Uniform Law for the International Sale of Goods (ULIS), 11, 333
Usage, commercial, 87 et seq.
Usages of international trade, 28

Validity, 24, 102
     versus substance, 177
     of disclaimer, 175-178
     of the contract, 62(a), 63
     as 'yardstick', 178
Venire contra factum proprium, 77, 79

Warehouse, deposit in, 323
Writing, 79, 98
     definition of, 97
     requirements, 92 et seq.


Pace Law School Institute of International Commercial Law - Last updated March 28, 2005
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