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Published in J. Herbots editor / R. Blanpain general editor, International Encyclopaedia of Laws - Contracts, Suppl. 29 (December 2000) 1-192. Reproduced with permission of the publisher Kluwer Law International, The Hague.

[For more current case annotated texts by this author, see Bernstein & Lookofsky, Understanding the CISG in Europe, 2d ed. (2003) and Lookofsky, Understanding the CISG in the USA, 2d ed. (2004).]

excerpt from

The 1980 United Nations Convention on Contracts
for the International Sale of Goods

Joseph Lookofsky

Article 23
Acceptance Effective; Contract Concluded

132. According to Article 23 of the CISG:

'A contract is concluded at the moment when an acceptance of an offer becomes effective in accordance with the provisions of this Convention.'

And according to the main rule in Article 18(2), an acceptance becomes effective at the moment the indication of assent reaches the offeror.[1] [page 77]

1. Assuming the acceptance reaches the offeror within the time fixed. etc. Regarding Article 18, see supra No. 112 et seq.

Pace Law School Institute of International Commercial Law - Last updated April 4, 2005