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Article 4. Issues Covered and Excluded; Validity; Property Interests

TEXT OF ARTICLE 4

This Convention governs only the formation of the contract of sale and the rights and obligations of the seller and the buyer arising from such a contract. In particular, except as otherwise expressly provided in this Convention, it is not concerned with:

(a) the validity of the contract or of any of its provisions or of any usage;

(b) the effect which the contract may have on the property in the goods sold.


OUTLINE OF ISSUES

Reproduced with permission of UNCITRAL

4A Issues covered. See Part II (arts. 14-24); Part III (arts. 25-88)

4B Issues excluded

4B1 Validity under domestic law

4B11 Remedies for fraud; party's capacity ("competency")

4B2 Effect of contract on property. See Part II, Ch. IV, Risk of Loss

4B3 Other issues not governed by this Convention

4B31 See: Convention on the Limitation Period in the International Sale of Goods (1974), amended by 1980 Protocol

4B32 See: Uniform Law on Agency of an International Character in the Purchase and Sale of Goods


DESCRIPTORS

Scope of Convention ; Agency issues ; Assignment ; Capacity of parties ; Coercion ; Distributorship agreements ; Duress ; Error or mistake ; Exculpatory clauses ; Fraud ; Misrepresentation ; Novation ; Penalty clauses ; Precontractual liability ; Procedural matters vs. substantive law ; Property in the goods ; Retention of title ; Set-off ; Standard terms and conditions ; Statute of limitations ; Torts ; Unjust enrichment ; Validity


CASE ANNOTATIONS: UNCITRAL DIGEST CASES PLUS ADDED CASES

UNCITRAL has identified relevant cases in Digests containing case annotations for each article of the CISG. UNCITRAL cites 87 cases in its Digest of Art. 4 case law:

Argentina        1           France   2           Netherlands   9
Australia   1 Germany      32 Spain   1
Austria 11 ICC   3 Switzerland 15
Belgium   5 Italy   3 United States        4      TOTAL      87

Presented below is a composite list of Art. 4 cases reporting UNCITRAL Digest cases and other Art. 4 cases. All cases are listed in chronological sequence, commencing with the most recent. Asterisks identify the UNCITRAL Digest cases, commencing with the 26 November 2002 citation reported below. Cases are coded to the UNCITRAL Thesaurus.

English texts and full-text English translations of cases are provided as indicated. In most instances researchers can also access UNCITRAL abstracts and link to Unilex abstracts and full-text original-language case texts sourced from Internet websites and other data, including commentaries by scholars, to the extent available.
 

United States 7 July 2009 Federal District Court [Wisconsin] (Amit Israeli v. Gallina) 4B

Belgium 19 June 2009 Court of Cassation [Supreme Court] (Scaform International BV v. Lorraine Tubes S.A.S.) [translation available]

Switzerland 18 May 2009 Bundesgericht [Federal Supreme Court] (Packaging machine case) 4B [translation available]

United States 26 March 2009 U.S. District Court [Ohio] (Miami Valley Paper, LLC v. Lebbing Engineering & Consulting GmbH) 4A ; 4B

Israel 17 March 2009 Supreme Court (Pamesa Ceramica v. Yisrael Mendelson Ltd) 4B [English text]

Netherlands 17 February 2009 Gerechtshof [Appellate Court] 's-Gravenhage (U.S. party v. Restauratiebedrijf B.V.)

Italy 16 February 2009 Tribunale di Forli [District Court] (Cisterns and accessories case) 4A ; 4B [translation available]

Serbia 28 January 2009 Foreign Trade Court of Arbitration, Serbian Chamber of Commerce (Medicaments case) 4A ; 4B [English text]
 

Switzerland 26 November 2008 Handelsgericht [Commercial Court] Aargau (Fruit and vegetables case) 4B [translation available]

United States 7 October 2008 U.S. District Court [New Jersey] (Forestal Guarani, S.A. v. Daros International, Inc.)

Switzerland 26 September 2008 Appellationsgericht [Appellate Court] Basel-Stadt (Packaging machine case) 4B [translation available]

Switzerland 12 September 2008 Amtsgericht [District Court] Sursee (Second-hand tractor case)

United States 25 July 2008 U.S. District Court [Pennsylvania] (Norfolk Southern Railway Company v. Power Source Supply, Inc.)

Serbia 15 July 2008 Foreign Trade Court of Arbitration, Serbian Chamber of Commerce (Milk packaging equipment case) 4B2 [translation available]

United States 1 July 2008 U.S. District Court [Minnesota] (Dingxi Longhai Dairy, Ltd v. Becwood Technology Group, L.L.C.)

Slovak Republic 19 June 2008 Supreme Court (Health care products case) 4B [translation available]

Germany 12 June 2008 Landgericht [District Court] Landshut (Metalic slabs case) 4B [translation available]

Slovak Republic 29 May 2008 District Court Nitra (T.I., S.r.o. v.L.L., S.r.o.) [translation available]

Germany 19 May 2008 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Köln (Pesticide case) 4B [translation available]

Switzerland 19 May 2008 Cour supreme du canton [Appellate Court] Berne

United States 19 May 2008 U.S. District Court [Florida] (Zhejiang Shaoxing Yongli Printing and Dyeing Co., Ltd v. Microflock Textile Group Corporation)

Switzerland 13 May 2008 Kantonsgericht [District Court] St. Gallen 4B [translation available]

Slovak Republic 30 April 2008 Supreme Court (Health care products case) 4B [translation available]

Serbia 22 April 2008 High Commercial Court 4A ; 4B [translation available]

United States 18 March 2008 U.S. District Court [Kentucky] (Sky Cast, Inc. v. Global Direct Distribution, LLC) 4B

Germany 5 March 2008 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] München (Stolen car case) 4B2 [translation available]

Germany 25 January 2008 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Hamburg (Café inventory case) 4B [translation available]

Spain 17 January 2008 Supreme Court (Used automobiles case) [translation available]
 

Germany 20 December 2007 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Oldenburg (Industrial tools case) 4A [translation available]

China 10 December 2007 CIETAC Arbitration Award [CISG 2007/01] (Packaging equipment case) 4B [English text]

Germany 27 November 2007 Bundesgerichtshof [Federal Supreme Court] (Glass bottles case) 4B [translation available]

Netherlands 14 November 2007 Rechtbank [District Court] Arnhem (Northern Linen B.V. v. Jematex B.V. B.A.)

Serbia 13 November 2007 Foreign Trade Court of Arbitration, Serbian Chamber of Commerce (Mineral water and wooden pallets case) 4A ; 4B [translation available]

United States 8 November 2007 Federal Appellate Court [9th Circuit] (Barbara Berry, S.A. de C.V. v. Ken M. Spooner Farms, Inc.) 4B

United States 28 September 2007 Federal District Court [Michigan] (Easom Automation Systems, Inc. v. Thyssenkrupp Fabco. Corp.) 4B

Switzerland 19 June 2007 Handelsgericht [Commercial Court] Aargau (Railway rails case) [translation available]

Slovak Republic 22 May 2007 Regional Court Kosice (Plastic bottles case) 4B [translation available]

Switzerland 27 April 2007 Tribunal cantonal [Appellate Court] Valais (Oven case) 4A ; 4B [translation available]

Germany 21 March 2007 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Dresden (Stolen automobile case) 4B2 [translation available]

Spain 13 March 2007 Audiencia Provincial [Appellate Court] Valencia (Coconut case) 4B [translation available]

France 13 February 2007 Cour de cassation [Supreme Court] (Computer motherboard case) 4B1 [translation available]

Netherlands 2 January 2007 Gerechtshof [Appellate Court] (Tree case) 4B

Arbitration Chamber of Paris Case No. 9926 of 2007 [assumed date] (Chemical compound case) 4B [English text]
 

Switzerland 20 December 2006 Bundesgericht [Supreme Court] 4B [translation available]

France 19 December 2006 Cour d'appel [Appellate Court] Rouen (Potato seedling case) 4A [translation available]

Switzerland 12 December 2006 Obergericht [Appellate Court] Thurgau (Building materials case) 4B [translation available]

Switzerland 8 November 2006 Zivilgericht [Civil Court] Basel-Stadt (Packaging machine case) 4B [translation available]

Switzerland 27 October 2006 Tribunal cantonal [Appellate Court] Valais (Bicycle and motorcycle parts case) [translation available]

Germany 23 October 2006 Landgericht [District Court] Bamberg (Plants case) 4B [translation available]

United States 10 October 2006 Federal District Court [Ohio] (Miami Valley Paper, LLC. v. Lebbing Engoineering & Consulting GmbH) 4B

China 20 September 2006 CIETAC Arbitration Award [CISG/2006/02] (Welding machine case) 4B [translation available]

United States 12 September 2006 Federal Appellate Court [11th Circuit Court of Appeals] (Treibacher Industrie, A.G. v. Allegheny Technologies, Inc.)

China September 2006 CIETAC Arbitration Award [CISG 2006/08] (Air purifier case) 4B [translation available]

United States 23 August 2006 Federal District Court [New York] (TeeVee Tunes v. Gerhard Schubert GmbH) 4B

Slovak Republic 29 June 2006 District Court Nitra (Textile products case) [translation available]

Germany 26 June 2006 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Frankfurt (Printed goods case) 4A [translation available]

United States 1 June 2006 Federal District Court [New York] (Multi-Juice, S.A. v. Snapple Beverage Corp.) 4B

Switzerland 23 May 2006 Tribunal cantonal [Higher Cantonal Court] Valais (Suits case) 4B [translation available]

China 21 May 2006 CIETAC Arbitration Award [CISG/2006/01] (Diesel generators case) 4B [translation available]

Switzerland 12 May 2006 Cour de justice [Appellate Court] Genève (Office furniture case) 4B [translation available]

Belgium 24 April 2006 Hof van Beroep [Appellate Court] Antwerpen (GmbH Lothringer Gunther Grosshandelsgesellschaft für Bauelemente und Holzwerkstoffe v. NV Fepco International)

Belgium 19 April 2006 Rechtbank van Koophandel [Commercial Court] Hasselt (Bruggen Deuren BVBA v. Top Deuren VOF) 4A [translation available]

Russia 13 April 2006 Arbitration Award 105/2005 4B [translation available]

United States 13 April 2006 Federal District Court [State of Washington] (Barbara Berry, S.A. de C.V. v. Ken M. Spooner Farms, Inc.)

Germany 13 February 2006 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Köln (Woolen cloth case) 4B [translation available]

Russia 13 January 2006 Arbitration Award 137/2004 4B [translation available]

United States 6 January 2006 Federal District Court [Pennsylvania] (American Mint LLC v. GOSoftware, Inc.)
 

Switzerland 22 December 2005 Handelsgericht [Commercial Court] Zürich (Retail fashion clothes case) 4B [translation available]

China 7 December 2005 CIETAC Arbitration Award [CISG/2005/05] (Heaters case) 4B [translation available]

Germany 6 December 2005 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Hamm (Used motorcar parts case) 4A ; 4B [translation available]

Poland 10 November 2005 Supreme Court (Furniture case)

China 9 November 2005 CIETAC Arbitration Award [CISG/2005/04] (DVD machines case) 4B [translation available]

Germany 2 November 2005 Landgericht [District Court] Heidelberg (Natural stones case) 4B [translation available]

China 21 October 2005 CIETAC Arbitration Award [CISG/2005/03] (Sheet metal producing system case) 4B [translation available]

France 13 October 2005 Cour d'appel [Appellate Court] Versailles (Caterpillar toys case) 4B [translation available]

Slovak Republic 11 October 2005 Regional Court Bratislava (Fur case) 4B [translation available]

China October 2005 CIETAC Arbitration Award [CISG 2005/24] (Filling and sealing machine case) 4B [translation available]

China 21 September 2005 Supreme Court of the PRC (Panda S.r.l. v. Shunde Westband Furniture Co., Ltd.) 4B [translation available]

Switzerland 19 September 2005 Kantonsgericht Wallis / Tribunal cantonal Valais [Canton Appellate Court]

Switzerland 16 August 2005 Kantonsgericht [District Court] Obwalden (Horse case)

United States 16 August 2005 Federal District Court [Pennsylvania] (American Mint LLC v. GOSoftware, Inc.) 4B

Germany 3 August 2005 Landgericht [District Court] Neubrandenburg (Pitted sour cherries case) [translation available]

Canada 29 July 2005 Quebec Superior Court (Sonox Sia v. Albury Grain Sales Inc. et al.) 4B

Russia 2 June 2005 Arbitration Award 131/2004 4B [translation available]

Russia 27 May 2005 Arbitration Award 95/2004 4B [translation available]

Switzerland 23 May 2005 Kantonsgericht [District Court] Nidwalden 4A ; 4B [translation available]

Russia 27 April 2005 Arbitration Award 5/2004 4B [translation available]

United States 27 April 2005 Federal District Court [Alabama] (Treibacher Industrie, A.G. v. TDY Industries, Inc.) 4B

China April 2005 CIETAC Arbitration Award [CISG 2005/22] (Caprolactum case) 4B [translation available]

United States 30 March 2005 Federal District Court [Illinois] (Caterpillar v. Usinor Industeel)

Austria 23 March 2005 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Linz (Conveyor band case) 4A ; 4B [translation available]

United States 19 March 2005 Federal District Court [New York] (Genpharm Inc. v. Pliva-Lachena A.S.)

China 28 February 2005 CIETAC Arbitration Award [CISG 2005/06] (Wool case) 4B [translation available]

China 21 February 2005 CIETAC Arbitration Award [CISG 2005/14] (Equipment case) [translation available]

Switzerland 21 February 2005 Kantonsgericht [Appellate Court] Valais / Wallis (CNC machine case) 4B [translation available]

Spain 31 January 2005 Audiencia Provincial [Appellate Court] Cuenca (Live calves case) [translation available]

Netherlands 28 January 2005 Hoge Raad [Supreme Court] 4A

Belgium 25 January 2005 Rechtbank van Koophandel [District Court] Tongeren (Scaforn International BV & Orion Metal BVBA v. Exma CPI SA) [translation available]

Russia 24 January 2005 Arbitration Award 68/2004 4A ; 4B [translation available]
 

Germany 20 December 2004 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Stuttgart 4B [translation available]

Switzerland 3 November 2004 Tribunal Cantonal [Appellate Court] Jura [translation available]

Belgium 4 October 2004 Hof van Beroep [Appellate Court] Ghent (Deforche NV v. Prins Gebroeders Bouwstoffenhandel BV) 4B [translation available]

Italy 20 September 2004 Corte Suprema di Cassazione [Supreme Court] 4A ; 4B [translation available]

Serbia 13 September 2004 High Commercial Court (Publications case) 4B [translation available]

China September 2004 CIETAC Arbitration Award [CISG 2004/07] (Steel products case) 4B [English text]

Germany 22 July 2004 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Düüsseldorf (Shoes case) 4B [detailed abstract available]

Germany 20 July 2004 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Karlsruhe (Shoes case) 4B [translation available]

Switzerland 7 July 2004 Bundesgericht [Supreme Court] (Cable drums case) 4A ; 4B [translation available]

Germany 30 June 2004 Bundesgerichtshof [Supreme Court] [translation available]

Belgium 24 June 2004 Hof van Beroep [Appellate Court] Gent 4B

Russia 9 June 2004 Arbitration Award 125/2003 4B [translation available]

China June 2004 CIETAC Arbitration Award [CISG 2004/08] (Citric acid case) 4B1 [translation available]

Germany 28 May 2004 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Düsseldorf 4A ; 4B [translation available]

Russia 24 May 2004 Arbitration Award 138/2003 4B [translation available]

Belgium 17 May 2004 Hof van Beroep [Appellate Court] Ghent (Cooling installation case) 4B [translation available]

Germany 21 April 2004 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Düsseldorf [15 U 88/03] 4A [translation available]

Russia 20 April 2004 Arbitration Award 115/2003 4B [translation available]

Ukraine 15 April 2004 Tribunal of International Commercial Arbitration, Ukrainian Chamber of Commerce & Trade 4B [translation available]

Belgium 14 April 2004 Hof van Beroep [Appellate Court] Antwerp (ING Insurance v. HVA Koeling BVBA and Fagard Winand / HVA Koeling BVBA v. Fagard Winand and Besseling Agri-Technic BV) [translation available]

United States 13 April 2004 U.S. District Court [Pennsylvania] (Amco Ukrservice v. American Meter Company) 4B

Russia 9 April 2004 Arbitration Award 129/2003 [translation available]

Italy 31 March 2004 Tribunale [District Court] Padova [translation available]

United States 29 March 2004 U.S. District Court [Pennsylvania] (Amco Ukrservice v. American Meter Company) 4B

China 23 March 2004 Shanghai No. 1 Intermediate People's Court [District Court] (Singapore ___ Company v. Dongling Trade Company, Shanghai Xuyang Trade Company, Yingfang Xi & Yunli, Luo) 4B [translation available]

Russia 19 March 2004 Arbitration Award 135/2003 4B [translation available]

Netherlands 17 March 2004 Rechtbank [District Court] Arnhem 4B [translation available]

China 12 March 2004 CIETAC Arbitration Award [CISG 2004/04] (Fireworks case) 4B [translation available]

Switzerland 12 March 2004 Amtsgericht [Lower Court] Willisau [translation available]

Italy 25 February 2004 Tribunale [District Court] Padova 4B [translation available]

Estonia 19 February 2004 Ringkonnakohus [Appellate Court] Tallinn [translation available]

Russia 19 February 2004 Arbitration Award 65/2003 4B [translation available]

Switzerland 11 February 2004 Appelationshof [Appellate Court] Bern (Cable case) 4A [translation available]

Russia 3 February 2004 Arbitration Award 71/2003 4B [translation available]

Germany 30 January 2004 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Düsseldorf 4B [translation available]

Switzerland 27 January 2004 Kantonsgericht [District Court] Schaffhausen 4B [translation available]

Germany 8 January 2004 Landgericht [District Court] Trier 4B1 [translation available]
 

Poland 19 December 2003 Supreme Court ("O.O. AG in M. v. Leszek W. & Zbigniew W.) 4B [translation available]

Germany 12 December 2003 Landgericht [District Court] Bielefeld 4B [translation available]

Germany 10 December 2003 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Karlsruhe 4B [translation available]

Belgium 4 December 2003 Rechtbank van Koophandel [District Court] Kortrijk

China 3 December 2003 CIETAC Arbitration Award [CISG/2003/02] (False hair case) 4B1 [translation available]

Netherlands 19 November 2003 Rechtbank [District Court] Utrecht

Canada 14 November 2003 Ontario Superior Court of Justice (Shane v. JCB Belgium) 4A ; 4B

Switzerland 13 November 2003 Bundesgericht [Supreme Court] [translation available]

Switzerland 20 October 2003 Kantonsgericht [District Court] Schaffhausen 4A [detailed abstract available]

Ukraine 10 October 2003 Tribunal of International Commercial Arbitration, Ukrainian Chamber of Commerce and Trade 4A [translation available]

United States 6 October 2003 U.S. District Court [Northern Dist. Illinois] (Stawski Distributing v. Zywiec Breweries) 4B

Belgium 11 September 2003 Hof van Beroep [Appellate Court] Gent

France 10 September 2003 Cour d’appel [Appellate Court] Paris [translation available]

Switzerland 19 August 2003 Tribunal Cantonal [Appellate Court] Valais 4B [translation available]

Germany 25 July 2003 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Düsseldorf 4B [translation available]

Germany 15 July 2003 Landgericht [District Court] Mönchengladbach 4B [translation available]

Argentina 2 July 2003 Commercial Court of Original Jurisdiction, Buenos Aires (Arbatax S.A. Reorganization Proceeding) 4B [translation available]

Belgium 20 June 2003 Hof van Beroep [Appellate Court] Gent

Spain 7 June 2003 Audiencia Provincial [Appellate Court] Valencia 4B [translation available]

Russia 26 May 2003 Arbitration Court [Appellate Court] for Moscow Region (Case No. KG-A40/322503) 4B [translation available]

Belgium 28 April 2003 Cour d’appel [Appellate Court] Liège 4B [translation available]

Russia 16 April 2003 Arbitration Award No. 99/2002 4B [translation available]

Russia 4 April 2003 Arbitration Award 134/2002 4B [translation available]

Russia 28 January 2003 Presidium of Supreme Court (Resoluution No. 6134/01 4B [translation available]

ICC 2003 International Court of Arbitration, Case 11849 (Fashion products case) 4A [English text]
 

United States 13 December 2002 California Court of Appeal (Regency Wines, Inc. v. Champagne Montaudon)

Switzerland 2 December 2002 Tribunal cantonal [Appellate Court] Valais (Tea room case) 4B [translation available]

Netherlands 28 November 2002 Gerechtshof [Appellate Court] 's-Hertogenbosch

* Italy 26 November 2002 Tribunale [District Court] Rimini 4A [translation available]

Germany 22 August 2002 Landgericht [District Court] Freiburg 4B2 [translation available]

Russia 6 August 2002 Arbitration Court [Appellate Court] for Western Siberia Region (Case No. F04/2712-494/A03-2002) 4A [translation available]

Germany 26 July 2002 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Zweibrücken [translation available]

China 15 July 2002 CIETAC Arbitration Award [CISG 2002/19] (Coating equipment case) 4B [translation available]

* United States 10 May 2002 U.S. District Court [Southern Dist. NY] (Geneva Pharmaceuticals Tech Corp. v. Barr Labs. Inc.) 4B

Germany 26 April 2002 Landgericht [District Court] Freiburg [translation available]

Finland 12 April 2002 Hovrätt [Appellate Court] Turku 4B [translation available]

* United States 28 March 2002 U.S. District Court [Illinois] (Usinor Industeel v. Leeco Steel Products) 4B1 ; 4B2

United States 26 March 2002 U.S District Court [Southern Dist. NY] (St. Paul Insurance v. Neuromed) 4B2

China 7 March 2002 CIETAC Arbitration award [translation available]

Belgium 26 February 2002 Rechtbank van Koophandel [Commercial Court] Hasselt (Fagard Winand v. HVA Koeling BVBA / HVA Koeling BVBA v. Besseling Agri-Technic BV and NV De Vanderlandsehe)

Russia 18 February 2002 Arbitration Award No. 165/2001 4B [translation available]

Switzerland 17 January 2002 Handelsgericht [Commercial Court] Bern 4B [translation available]

* Germany 9 January 2002 Bundesgerichtshof [Federal Supreme Court] 4B [translation available]

ICC 2002 International Court of Arbitration, Case 11333 (Machine case) 4B [English text]
 

United States 17 December 2001 U.S. District Court [Michigan] (Shuttle Packaging v. Tsonakis) 4B

Germany 29 November 2001 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Karlsruhe (Medication case) 4B1 [translation available]

France 6 November 2001 Cour d’appel [Appellate Court] Paris 4B

Germany 31 October 2001 Bundesgerichtshof [Federal Supreme Court] 4B [translation available]

* Austria 22 October 2001 Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] [1 Ob 49/01i] 4B [translation available]

* Austria 22 October 2001 Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] [1 Ob 77/01g] 4B [translation available]

Russia 16 October 2001 Arbitration Court [Appellate Court] for Western Siberia Region (Case No. F04/3157-630/A03-2001) 4B [translation available]

Italy 28 September 2001 Milan Arbitration proceeding (Steel wire case) 4B [English text]

* United States 27 July 2001 U.S. District Court [California] (Asante v. PMC-Sierra)

Russia 30 May 2001 Arbitration Award No. 185/2000 4B2 [translation available]

Germany 28 May 2001 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Köln (Motorcycle clothing and accessories case) 4B [translation available]

Belgium 25 April 2001 Rechtbank van Koophandel [District Court] Veurne 4B [translation available]

United States 10 April 2001 U.S. Federal Bankruptcy Court [Ohio] (Victoria Alloys v. Fortis Bank)

France 30 January 2001 Cour d'appel [Appellate Court] Amiens

United States 30 January 2001 U.S. District Court [California] (Supermicro Computer v. Digitechnic)

* Belgium 29 January 2001 Rechtbank van Koophandel [District Court] Ieper 4B31
 

Switzerland 22 December 2000 Bundesgericht [Federal Supreme Court] 4B [translation available]

Switzerland 11 December 2000 Bundesgericht [Federal Supreme Court] 4B [translation available]

Switzerland 17 October 2000 Bundesgericht [Federal Supreme Court] 4B [translation available]

Switzerland 15 September 2000 Bundesgericht [Federal Supreme Court] [4C.105/2000] 4A [translation available]

* Austria 7 September 2000 Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] 4B1 [translation available]

* United States 29 August 2000 U.S. District Court [Pennsylvania] (Viva Vino v. Farnese Vini) 4B

* Italy 12 July 2000 Tribunale [District Court] Vigevano [translation available]

* Switzerland 11 July 2000 Bundesgericht [Federal Supreme Court] 4B [translation available]

Austria 15 June 2000 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Graz 4B [translation available]

Russia 6 June 2000 Arbitration award 406/1998 4B [translation available]

Netherlands 18 April 2000 Gerechtshof [Appellate Court] Arnhem 4B

Austria 13 April 2000 Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] 4B1 [translation available]

* Germany 13 April 2000 Amtsgericht [Lower Court] Duisburg 4B [translation available]

Germany 6 April 2000 Landgericht [District Court] München 4B [translation available]

* Austria 21 March 2000 Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] [translation available]

ICC March 2000 International Court of Arbitration Case 10114 [excerpt from award]

Canada 26 January 2000 Ontario Court of Appeal (Nova Tool v. London Industries) 4B

Austria 18 January 2000 Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court]

China 2000 CIETAC Arbitration Award [CISG 2000/17] (Souvenir coins case) 4A [translation available]

ICC 2000 International Court of Arbitration, Case 9781 4B [English text]

ICC 2000 International Court of Arbitration, Case 10329 4B [English text]
 

* Italy 29 December 1999 Tribunale [District Court] Pavia 4A [translation available]

Italy 14 December 1999 Corte di Cassazione [Supreme Court] 4A [translation available]

Netherlands 1 December 1999 Arrondissementsrechtbank [District Court] Middelburg 4B

Germany 26 November 1999 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Hamburg 4A [translation available]

Germany 28 October 1999 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Braunschweig 4A ; 4B [translation available]

Austria 28 July 1999 Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] (Pipe case) 4B [translation available]

Russia 27 July 1999 Arbitration award 302/1996 4B1 [translation available]

ICC July 1999 International Court of Arbitration, Case 9448 [English text]

* Switzerland 11 June 1999 Handelsgericht [Commercial Court] Aargau 4B [translation available]

Russia 10 June 1999 Arbitration award 55/1998 4B1 [translation available]

China 31 May 1999 CIETAC Arbitration Award [CISG/1999/27] (Indium ingot case) 4B [translation available]

Netherlands 27 April 1999 Gerechtshof [Appellate Court] Arnhem 4B [translation available]

Netherlands 8 April 1999 Arrondissementsrechtbank [District Court] Arnhem 4B

Switzerland 8 April 1999 Handelsgericht [Commercial Court] Zürich 4A ; 4B [translation available]

China 30 March 1999 CIETAC Arbitration Award [CISG/1999/16] (Flanges case) 4B [translation available]

China 29 March 1999 CIETAC Arbitration Award [CISG/1999/14] (Flanges case) 4B [translation available]

Germany 24 March 1999 Bundesgerichtshof [Federal Supreme Court] 4B [translation available]

United States 9 March 1999 State District Court [Minnesota] (KSTP-FM v. Specialized Communications) 4B

ICC March 1999 International Court of Arbitration, Case 9978 [English text]

Austria 24 February 1999 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Graz (Military weapons case) 4B [translation added]

France 10 February 1999 Cour d’appel [Appellate Court] Paris

* Switzerland 10 February 1999 Handelsgericht [Commercial Court] Zürich 4A [translation available]

* France 5 January 1999 Cour de Cassation [Supreme Court] 4A ; 4B [translation available]
 

Russia 30 December 1998 Arbitration award 62/1998 4B [translation available]

Germany 29 December 1998 Hamburg Arbitration award [translation available]

Canada 16 December 1998 Ontario Court, General Division (Nova Tool v. London Industries) 4B

Austria 15 December 1998 Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] [translation available]

* Switzerland 30 November 1998 Handelsgericht [Commercial Court] Zürich 4B [translation available]

Germany 26 November 1998 Landgericht [District Court] Memmingen 4B [translation available]

Russia 22 October 1998 Arbitration award 196/1997 [translation available]

* Austria 15 October 1998 Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] [translation available]

Germany 5 October 1998 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Hamburg 4B [translation available]

Netherlands 2 October 1998 Arrondissementsrechtbank [District Court] 's Hertogenbosch 4B1 [translation available]

Germany 22 September 1998 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Oldenburg [translation available]

Germany 2 September 1998 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Celle 4B [translation available]

* Switzerland 30 June 1998 Tribunal Cantonal [Appellate Court] Valais 4B

* Austria 25 June 1998 Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] 4B

* Belgium 17 June 1998 Rechtbank van Koophandel [District Court] Hasselt

* Germany 23 June 1998 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Hamm 4B [translation available]

Germany 26 May 1998 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Thüringer, Jena 4B [translation available]

Slovenia 8 April 1998 Supreme Court (Caprolactum case) 4B [translation available]

Germany 31 March 1998 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Zweibrücken (Vine was case) 4B [translation available]

* Germany 24 March 1998 Landgericht [District Court] Berlin (Knitwear case) 4B [translation available]

* Germany 11 March 1998 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] München 4B ; 4B1 [translation available]

Austria 10 March 1998 Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] 4B

* Germany 12 February 1998 Bundesgerichtshof [Federal Supreme Court] 4B [translation available]

Germany 28 January 1998 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] München 4B [translation available]

* Switzerland 23 January 1998 Kantonsgericht [District Court] Freiburg 4B [translation available]

* Germany 21 January 1998 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] München (Insulating materials case) [translation available]

Switzerland 15 January 1998 Tribunale d'appello [Appellate Court] Lugano 4A [translation available]

Russia 10 January 1998 Arbitration award 65/1997 4B [translation available]

Hungary 1998 Fovárosi Biróság [Metropolitan Court] Budapest
 

China 19 December 1997 CIETAC Arbitration Award [CISG/1997/36] (Steel case) 4B [translation available]

Germany 5 November 1997 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Hamm 4B [translation available]

* Germany 15 October 1997 Landgericht [District Court] Hagen 4A [translation available]

* Switzerland 10 October 1997 Cour de Justice [Appellate Court] Genève 4B [translation available]

Netherlands 2 October 1997 Gerechtshof [Appellate Court] 's Hertogenbosch 4B

Switzerland 26 September 1997 Handelsgericht [Commercial Court] Aargau (Cutlery case) [translation available]

Germany 18 September 1997 Landgericht [District Court] Hamburg

* Germany 15 September 1997 Landgericht [District Court] Heilbronn 4B [translation available]

Austria 8 September 1997 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Linz 4B

Germany 23 July 1997 Bundesgerichtshof [Federal Supreme Court] [VIII ZR 134/96] [Benetton II] 4A ; 4B1 [translation available]

United States 21 July 1997 Federal District Court [Southern Dist. NY] (Helen Kaminski v. Marketing Australian Products) 4B

* Germany 9 July 1997 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] München [7 U 2070/97] 4A [translation available]

Germany 9 July 1997 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] München [7 U 2246/97] (Fitness equipment case) 4A [translation available]

Germany 4 July 1997 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Hamburg 4B [translation available]

Switzerland 3 July 1997 Bezirksgericht [District Court] St. Gallen [translation available]

Netherlands 2 July 1997 Arrondissementsrechtbank [District Court] 's Gravenhage 4B

Hungary 1 July 1997 Fovárosi Biróság [Metropolitan Court] Budapest 4B [translation available]

* Germany 25 June 1997 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Karlsruhe [translation available]

* Spain 20 June 1997 Audiencia Provincial [Appellate Court] Barcelona 4A translation available]

Germany 19 June 1997 Landgericht [District Court] Hamburg

Russia 5 June 1997 Arbitration award 229/1996 4A [translation available]

* Netherlands 29 May 1997 Arrondissementsrechtbank [District Court] Zutphen 4B

China 22 May 1997 CIETAC Arbitration Award [CISG/1997/13] (Soybean oil case) 4B [translation available]

Hungary 8 May 1997 Budapest Arbitration award Vb 96036 4A ; 4B

* Germany 6 May 1997 Landgericht [District Court] München

* Austria 24 April 1997 Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] (Processing plant case) 4B [translation available]

* Germany 24 April 1997 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Düsseldorf 4B [translation available]

Germany 17 April 1997 Landgericht [District Court] Frankenthal

Netherlands 16 April 1997 Arrondissementsrechtbank [District Court] 's Gravenhage

China 15 April 1997 CIETAC Arbitration Award [CISG/1997/06] (Germanium case) 4A [translation available]

Netherlands 15 April 1997 Gerechtshof [Appellate Court] Arnhem 4B

* Austria 20 March 1997 Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] (Mono ammonium phosphate case) 4B [translation available]

* Switzerland 20 February 1997 Bezirksgericht [District Court] Saane 4B [translation available]

China 6 February 1997 CIETAC Arbitration award [CISG/1997/38] 4B [translation available]

* Switzerland 5 February 1997 Handelsgericht [Commercial Court] Zürich 4A [translation available]

Germany 31 January 1997 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Koblenz [translation available]

ICC 23 January 1997 International Court of Arbitration, Case 8611 4A ; 4B [translation available]

* Belgium 21 January 1997 Rechtbank van Koophandel [District Court] Hasselt 4B

Switzerland 8 January 1997 Obergericht [Appellate Court] Luzern 4A ; 4B [translation available]
 

China 28 November 1996 CIETAC Arbitration Award [CISG/1996/54] (Moly-oxide case) 4B [translation available]

France 23 October 1996 Cour d'appel [Appellate Court] Grenoble 4B1 [translation available]

Germany 2 October 1996 Landgericht [District Court] Heidelberg

Germany 11 July 1996 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Düsseldorf 4A ; 4B

Switzerland 10 July 1996 Handelsgericht [Commercial Court] Zürich 4B [translation available]

* Belgium 18 June 1996 Hof van beroep [Appellate Court] Antwerpen 4B [translation available]

Switzerland 5 June 1996 Kantonsgericht [District Court] Nidwalden

* Switzerland 31 May 1996 Arbitration ZHK 273/1995 [Zürich Chamber of Commerce] [English text]

Germany 21 May 1996 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Köln 4B11 [translation available]

* Netherlands 21 May 1996 Gerechtshof [Appellate Court] Arnhem 4A [translation available]

France 15 May 1996 Cour d'appel [Appellate Court] Grenoble

* Germany 17 April 1996 Landgericht [District Court] Duisberg [translation available]

Germany 21 March 1996 Hamburg Arbitration award 4A [translation available]

Hungary 19 March 1996 Fovárosi Bíróság [Metropolitan Court] 4B

Switzerland 11 March 1996 Tribunal Cantonal [Appellate Court] Vaud [01 93 1061] 4B [translation available]

* Switzerland 12 February 1996 Tribunale d'appello [Appellate Court] Lugano 4B [translation available]

Russia 10 February 1996 Arbitration award 328/1994 4B2 [translation available]

* Germany 25 January 1996 Landgericht [District Court] München 4B [translation available]
 

* Switzerland 19 December 1995 Obergericht [Appellate Court] Thurgau (Cloth case) 4B [translation available]

France 13 December 1995 Cour d'appel [Appellate Court] Paris 4B1 [translation available]

Russia 22 November 1995 Arbitration award 99/1994 4B [translation available]

Austria 24 October 1995 Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] 4B

* Germany 11 October 1995 Landgericht [District Court] Düsseldorf 4B [translation available]

Austria 5 October 1995 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Linz

Germany 22 September 1995 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] München 4A ; 4B

* Belgium 19 September 1995 Tribunal de commerce [District Court] Nivelles 4B [translation available]

China 18 September 1995 Chansha Intermediate People's Court Economic Chamber (Skandinaviska v. Hunan Co) [translation available]

* France 13 September 1995 Cour d'appel [Appellate Court] Grenoble 4B [translation available]

Switzerland 24 August 1995 Handelsgericht [Commercial Court] St. Gallen 4B1 [translation available]

* Netherlands 22 August 1995 Gerechtshof [Appellate Court] Arnhem

* Germany 21 August 1995 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Stuttgart 4B [translation available]

Germany 20 July 1995 Landgericht [District Court] Aachen [translation available]

Germany 23 June 1995 Amtsgericht [Lower Court] München 4B [translation available]

Germany 22 June 1995 Landgericht [District Court] Kassel 4B [translation available]

* Germany 9 June 1995 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Hamm 4B [translation available]

Germany 29 May 1995 Landgericht [District Court] München (Computer hardware case) 4A ; 4B [translation available]

Germany 23 May 1995 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Frankfurt [translation available]

Germany 12 May 1995 Amtsgericht [Lower Court] Alsfeld 4B [translation available]

* Australia 28 April 1995 Federal District Court, Adelaide (Roder v. Rosedown) 4B ; 4B2

* Switzerland 26 April 1995 Handelsgericht [Commercial Court] Zürich 4A [translation available]

* Germany 20 March 1995 Landgericht [District Court] München 4B [translation available]

* Netherlands 1 March 1995 Arrondissementsrechtbank [District Court] Zwolle 4A

ICC March 1995 International Court of Arbitration, Case 7645 4B [English text]

* Germany 15 February 1995 Bundesgerichtshof [Federal Supreme Court] 4B2 [translation available]

Germany 8 February 1995 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] München [7 U 1720/94] 4B [translation available]

* Germany 8 February 1995 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Hamm 4B [translation available]

* Netherlands 25 January 1995 Arrondissementsrechtbank [District Court] Middelburg 4B3
 

Switzerland 9 December 1994 Bezirksgericht [District Court] Arbon 4B

* Netherlands 5 October 1994 Arrondissementsrechtbank [District Court] Amsterdam 4B

* Germany 6 September 1994 Amtsgericht [Lower Court] Mayen

* Germany 25 August 1994 Landgericht [District Court] Düsseldorf (Fashion goods case) 4A [translation available]

* ICC 23 August 1994 International Court of Arbitration, Case 7660 4B [English text]

* Germany 6 July 1994 Landgericht [District Court] Frankfurt 4A

* Austria 1 July 1994 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Innsbruck 4A [translation available]

* Austria 15 June 1994 Vienna Arbitration proceeding SCH-4318 4A [translation available]

* Austria 15 June 1994 Vienna Arbitration proceeding SCH-4366 4A [translation available]

* Germany 14 June 1994 Amtsgericht [Lower Court] Nordhorn 4B [translation available]

Switzerland 17 May 1994 Tribunal Cantonal [Appellate Court] Vaud 4A ; 4B [translation available]

* Germany 20 April 1994 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Frankfurt 4B

* Germany 24 January 1994 Kammergericht [Appellate Court] Berlin 4B [translation available]

ICC 1994 International Court of Arbitration, Case 7565 4B3 [English text]
 

Netherlands 30 December 1993 Arrondissementsrechtbank [District Court] Arnhem 4A ; 4B

Germany 18 November 1993 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Düsseldorf

* Argentina 14 October 1993 Cámara Nacional de Apelaciones en lo Comercial [Appellate Court] 4A ; 4B

* Germany 17 September 1993 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Koblenz 4A ; 4B [translation available]

* Switzerland 9 September 1993 Handelsgericht [Commercial Court] Zürich (Furniture case) [translation available]

United States 15 June 1993 Federal Appellate Court [5th Circuit] (Beijing Metals v. American Business Center) 4A ; 4B ; 4B11

* Germany 14 May 1993 Landgericht [District Court] Aachen 4A ; 4B [translation available]

Switzerland 7 May 1993 Richteramt [District Court] Laufen [translation available]

* Netherlands 6 May 1993 Arrondissementsrechtbank [District Court] Roermond 4B

* ICC 26 March 1993 International Court of Arbitration, Case 6653 4A [translation available]

* Netherlands 25 February 1993 Arrondissementsrechtbank [District Court] Arnhem 4A ; 4B

Italy 14 January 1993 Tribunale Civile [District Court] Monza 4A ; 4B [translation available]

Germany 8 January 1993 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Düsseldorf 4B [translation available]

ICC 1993 International Court of Arbitration, Case 7399 4A [English text]

China Post-1992 CIETAC Arbitration Award [CISG/1993/14] (White cardboard scrap paper case) 4B [translation available]
 

* Switzerland 21 December 1992 Zivilgericht [Civil Court] Basel 4A [translation available]

Germany 22 September 1992 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Hamm (Frozen bacon case) [translation available]

Netherlands 16 July 1992 Gerechtshof [Appellate Court] Amsterdam 4A ; 4B

France 22 April 1992 Cour d'appel [Appellate Court] Paris

Netherlands 16 April 1992 Arrondissementsrechtbank [District Court] Utrecht 4A ; 4B

* Netherlands 26 February 1992 Gerechtshof [Appellate Court] 's-Hertogenbosch 4A

* Germany 16 January 1992 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Koblenz 4G

* ICC 1992 International Court of Arbitration, Case 7197
 

Germany 17 September 1991 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Frankfurt 4B3 [translation available]

Germany 31 January 1991 Amtsgericht [Lower Court] Frankfurt 4B [translation available (excerpt)]
 

* Germany 26 September 1990 Landgericht [District Court] Hamburg 4B

ICC 1990 International Court of Arbitration, Case 6149 4B3 [English text]
 

China 13 June 1989 CIETAC Arbitration award 4A ; 4B [translation available]
 

Israel 2 November 1988 Supreme Court (Adras v. Harlow & Jones) [ULIS precedent] 4A ; 4B


UNCITRAL CASE DIGEST

The UNCITRAL Digest of case law on the United
Nations Convention on the International Sale of Goods
[*]

A/CN.9/SER.C/DIGEST/CISG/4 [8 June 2004]
Reproduced with the permission of UNCITRAL

[Text of Article 4
Digest of Article 4 case law
-    Issues dealt with by the Convention
-    Validity of the contract and of usages
-    Effect on the property of the goods sold
-    Other issues not dealt with by the Convention]
ARTICLE 4

     This Convention governs only the formation of the contract of sale and the rights and obligations of the seller and the buyer arising from such a contract. In particular, except as otherwise expressly provided in this Convention, it is not concerned with:
     (a) the validity of the contract or of any of
      its provisions or of any usage;
     (b) the effect which the contract may have
      on the property in the goods sold.

DIGEST OF ARTICLE 4 CASE LAW

1. The first sentence of Article 4 lists the matters in respect of which the Convention’s provisions prevail over those of domestic law, i.e. the formation of contract and the rights and obligations of the parties,[1] while the second sentence contains a non-exhaustive list of issues with which it is not concerned, namely the validity of the contract or of any of its provisions or of any usage as well as the effect which the contract may have on the property in the goods sold. The issues referred to in the second part of article 4 were not dealt with in the Convention as this would have delayed the conclusion of the Convention.[2]

2. Matters not governed by the Convention have to be settled either in conformity of the applicable set of uniform rules [3] or the applicable domestic law.[4]

Issues dealt with by the Convention

3. As far as the formation of contract is concerned, the Convention merely governs the issue of the objective requirements for the conclusion of the contract.[5] The issue of whether a contract is validly formed, on the contrary, is subject to the applicable national rules, except for those issues in respect of which the Convention provides exhaustive rules.[6] Thus, issues such as capacity to contract [7] and the consequences of mistake, duress and fraud are left the applicable domestic law.[8] Where, however, one party errs in respect of the qualities of the goods to be delivered or the solvency of the other party, the rules of the applicable law give way to those of the Convention, since the Convention exhaustively deals with those issues.

4. Although article 4 does not list the issue of burden of proof as one with which the Convention is concerned, some courts [9] (albeit not all [10]) have concluded that the Convention also governs the issue of burden of proof.[11] This view is based upon the fact that the Convention includes at least one instance, article 79, expressly dealing with the burden of proof.[12] As the issue is therefore governed by the Convention, albeit not expressly settled in it, article 7(2) requires the question to be settled in conformity with the general principles on which the Convention is based.[13] As far as the allocation of the burden of proof is concerned, the following general principles have been identified: the party which wants to derive beneficial legal consequences from a legal provision has to prove the existence of the factual prerequisites of the provision;[14] any party claiming an exception has to prove the factual prerequisites of that exception.[15]

5. These principles have led courts to state that the buyer who asserts the non-conformity of the goods has to prove the non-conformity as well as the existence of a proper notice of non-conformity.[16] Similarly, two courts decided that the buyer had to pay the price and was not entitled to damages or to avoidance of the contract for non-conformity of the goods, since it had not proved the non-conformity of the goods according to Art. 35.[17] In one case, a court decided that the buyer had lost its right to rely upon the non-conformity, since it had not been able to prove to have given timely notice thereof to the seller.[18]

6. In two cases, the aforementioned general principles induced courts to state that under Art. 42, which provides that the seller has to deliver goods which are free from any right or claim of a third party based on industrial property or other intellectual property, of which the seller knew or could not have been unaware, the buyer had the burden of proving that the seller knew or could not have been unaware of the third party industrial or intellectual property rights.[19]

7. These general principles were also the basis for several decisions dealing with the issue of damages. In this respect, one court stated that "according to the Convention the damaged buyer has the burden of proving the objective prerequisites of his claim for damages. Thus, he has to prove the damage, the causal link between the breach of contract and the damage as well as the foreseeability of the loss".[20] In other cases, it was stated more generally that the party claiming damages has to prove the damage suffered.[21]

Validity of the contract and of usages

8. Although the Convention generally leaves issues concerning the validity of the contract to the applicable national law,[22] in one respect the Convention provides rules which may contradict those on validity of the applicable national law.[23] Article 11 provides that a contract for the international sale of goods need not be concluded in or evidenced by writing and is not subject to any other requirement of form, while in some legal systems the form requirement for a contract for the sale of goods is considered to be an issue of validity of the contract.

9. The issue of whether a contract was validly concluded by a third person acting on behalf of one of the parties is an issue left to the applicable national law, since agency is not governed by the Convention.[24] The same is true for the validity of standard contract terms.[25]

10. The validity of usages -- which is not dealt with by the Convention,[26] but is left to the applicable domestic law [27] -- must be distinguished from the issue of how usages are to be defined, under which circumstances they are binding for the parties and what their relationship is with the rules set forth in the Convention; these issues are dealt with in article 9.[28]

Effect on the property of the goods sold

11. The Convention makes clear that it does not govern the passing of property of the goods sold.[29] During the drafting process, it was not regarded possible to unify the rule on this point.[30] Thus, the effects on the property of the goods sold are left to the applicable national law to be determined by the rules of private international law of the forum.

12. The Convention does not deal with the validity of a retention of title clause either.[31]

Other issues not dealt with by the Convention

13. The Convention itself expressly lists a few examples of the issues it is not concerned with.[32] There are many other issues not dealt with by the Convention. The following issues have been identified by Courts as not being dealt with by the Convention: the validity of a choice of forum clause,[33] the validity of a penalty clause,[34] the validity of a settlement agreement,[35] the assignment of receivables,[36] the assignment of contract,[37] set-off [38] - (at least where the receivables do not all arise from contracts governed by the Convention) - [39], the statute of limitations,[40] the issue of whether a court has jurisdiction [41] and, generally, any other issue of procedural law,[42] the assumption of debts,[43] the acknowledgement of debts,[44] the effects of the contract on third parties [45] as well as the issue of whether one is jointly liable.[46] According to some courts, the Convention does not deal with tort claims.[47]

14. One court has found that estoppel is not dealt with by the Convention,[48] however other courts have concluded that estoppel should be regarded as a general principle of the Convention.[49] Furthermore, one court ruled that the question of who had priority rights in the goods as between the seller and the third party creditor was, under CISG article 4, beyond the scope of the Convention and was governed instead by applicable national law, under which the third party creditor prevailed.[50]

15. According to some courts, the issue of the currency of payments is not dealt with by the Convention and, in the absence of a choice by the parties, [51] is left to the applicable domestic law.[52] According to one court, the issue of the currency of payment is, absent an agreement of the parties, to be determined by resorting to the currency of the place of payment to be determined on the basis of article 57.[53]


FOOTNOTES

* The present text was prepared using the full text of the decisions cited in the Case Law on UNCITRAL Texts (CLOUT) abstracts and other citations listed in the footnotes. The abstracts are intended to serve only as summaries of the underlying decisions and may not reflect all the points made in the digest. Readers are advised to consult the full texts of the listed court and arbitral decisions rather than relying solely on the CLOUT abstracts.

[Citations to cisgw3 case presentations have been substituted [in brackets] for the case citations provided in the UNCITRAL Digest. This substitution has been made to facilitate online access to CLOUT abstracts, original texts of court and arbitral decisions, and full text English translations of these texts (available in most but not all cases). For citations UNCITRAL had used, go to <http://www.uncitral.org/english/clout/digest_cisg_e.htm>.]

1. CLOUT case No. 241 [FRANCE Cour de Cassation [Supreme Court] 5 January 1999, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/990105f1.html>].

2. See Report of the Working Group on the International Sale of Goods on the work of its ninth session (Geneva, 19-30 September 1977)(A/CN.9/142), reproduced in the UNCITRAL Yearbook, 1978, at p. 65, paras. 48-51, 66, 69.

3. See CLOUT case No. 202 [FRANCE Cour d'appel [Appellate Court] 13 September 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/950913f1.html>], stating that the assignment of receivables is not governed by the Convention and applying the 1988 UNIDROIT Convention on International Factoring as the assignment fell under its sphere of application (see full text of the decision).

4. See CLOUT case No. 97 [SWITZERLAND Handelsgericht [Commercial Court] Zürich 9 September 1993, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/930909s1.html>].

5. See CLOUT case No. 95 [SWITZERLAND Zivilgericht [Civil Court] Basel 21 December 1992, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/921221s1.html>] (see full text of the decision).

6. See CLOUT case No. 47 [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Aachen 14 May 1993, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/930514g1.html>] (see full text of the decision).

7. See [AUSTRIA Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] 22 October 2001, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/011022a3.html>]; CLOUT case No. 5 [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Hamburg 26 September 1990, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/900926g1.html>].

8. See [SWITZERLAND Zürich Chamber of Commerce Arbitration Award [ZHK 273/1995] 31 May 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/960531s1.html>].

9. See CLOUT case No. 378 [ITALY Tribunale [District Court] Vigevano 12 July 2000, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/000712i3.html>]; CLOUT case No. 380 [ITALY Tribunale [District Court] Pavia 29 December 1999, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/991229i3.html>]; CLOUT case No. 331 [SWITZERLAND Handelsgericht [Commercial Court] Zürich 10 February 1999, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/990210s1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 196 [SWITZERLAND Handelsgericht [Commercial Court] Zürich 26 April 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/950426s1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 97 [SWITZERLAND Handelsgericht [Commercial Court] Zürich 9 September 1993, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/930909s1.html>].

10. See CLOUT case No. 261 [SWITZERLAND Bezirksgericht [District Court] Sanne 20 February 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970220s1.html>] ; CLOUT case No. 103 [ICC Court of Arbitration, case No. 6653 of 26 March 1993, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/936653i1.html>].

11. For a decision which refers to the issue of burden of proof without resolving the matter, see CLOUT case No. 253 [SWITZERLAND Tribunale d'appello [Appellate Court] Lugano 15 January 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980115s1.html>].

12. For this line of argument, see [GERMANY Bundesgerichtshof [Federal Supreme Court] 9 January 2002, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/020109g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 378 [ITALY Tribunale [District Court] Vigevano 12 July 2000, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/000712i3.html>]; CLOUT case No. 380 [ITALY Tribunale [District Court] Pavia 29 December 1999, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/991229i3.html>].

13. See CLOUT case No. 97 [SWITZERLAND Handelsgericht [Commercial Court] Zürich 9 September 1993, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/930909s1.html>].

14. For reference to this principle, see CLOUT case No. 378 [ITALY Tribunale [District Court] Vigegano 12 July 2000, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/000712i3.html>]; [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Frankfurt 6 July 1994, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/940706g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 107 [AUSTRIA Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Innsbruck 1 July 1994, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/940701a3.html>]; [ITALY Tribunale [District Court] Rimini 26 November 2002, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/021126i3.html>].

15. [ITALY Tribunale [District Court] Rimini 26 November 2002, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/021126i3.html>].

16. See CLOUT case No. 251 [SWITZERLAND Handelsgericht [Commercial Court] Zürich 30 November 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/981130s1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 196 [SWITZERLAND Handelsgericht [Commercial Court] Zürich 26 April 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/950426s1.html>] (see full text of the decision).

17. See [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Düsseldorf 25 August 1994, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/940825g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 107 [AUSTRIA Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Innsbruck 1 July 1994, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/940701a3.html>].

18. See [BELGIUM Rechtbank van Koophandel [District Court] 21 January 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970121b1.html>].

19. See [NETHERLANDS Rechtbank [District Court] Zwolle 1 March 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/950301n1.html>] ; [NETHERLANDS Gerechtshof [Appellate Court] Arnhem 21 May 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/960521n1.html>].

20. CLOUT case No. 196 [SWITZERLAND Handelsgericht [Commercial Court] Zürich 26 April 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/950426s1.html>] (see full text of the decision); for another case dealing with the issues of damages and burden of proof, see CLOUT case No. 214 [SWITZERLAND Handelsgericht [Commercial Court] Zürich 5 February 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970205s1.html>], stating that a buyer is generally entitled to interest on the loss of profit, but that in the case at hand the buyer lost his right to interest as he did not prove the time in which the profit would have been made (see full text of the decision).

21. See CLOUT case No. 380 [ITALY Tribunale [District Court] Pavia 29 December 1999, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/991229i3.html>]; CLOUT case No. 210 [SPAIN Audienca Provincial [Appellate Court] Barcelona 20 June 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970620s4.html>]; [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] 25 August 1994, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/940825g1.html>].

22. See [UNITED STATES Geneva Pharmaceuticals Tech. Corp. v. Barr Labs, Inc., Federal District Court [Southern Dist. New York] 10 May 2002, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/020510u1.html>]; [UNITED STATES Asante Technologies, Inc. v. PMC-Sierra, Inc., Federal District Court [Northern Dist. California] 27 July 2001, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/010727u1.html>]; [AUSTRIA Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] 7 September 2000, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/000907a3.html>]; [BELGIUM Hof van Bereop [Appellate Court] Antwerpen 18 June 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/960618b1.html>].

23. See United Nations Conference on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, Vienna, 10 March - 11 April 1980, Official Records, Documents of the Conference and Summary Records of the Plenary Meetings and of the Meetings of the Main Committee, 1981, 17.

24. See CLOUT case No. 378 [ITALY Tribunale [District Court] Vigevano 12 July 2000, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/000712i3.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 333 [SWITZERLAND Handelsgericht [Commercial Court] Aargau 11 June 1999, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/990611s1.html>] (see full text of the decision); [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Berlin 24 March 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980324g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 251 [SWITZERLAND Handelsgericht [Commercial Court] 30 November 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/981130s1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 189 [AUSTRIA Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] 20 March 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970320a3.html>] (see full text of the decision); [SWITZERLAND Tribunale d'appello [Appellate Court] Lugano 12 February 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/960212s1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 334 [SWITZERLAND Obergericht [Appellate Court] Thurgau 19 December 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/951219s1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 80 [GERMANY Kammergericht [Appellate Court] Berlin 24 January 1994, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/940124g1.html>] (see full text of the decision).

25. See [AUSTRIA Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] 7 September 2000, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/000907a3.html>]; [NETHERLANDS Rechtbank [District Court] Zutphen 29 May 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970529n1.html>] ; [GERMANY Amtsgericht [Lower Court] Nordhorn 14 June 1994, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/940614g1.html>].

26. See [AUSTRIA Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] 21 March 2000, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/000321a3.html>].

27. Id.

28. See CLOUT case No. 240 [AUSTRIA Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] 15 October 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/981015a3.html>].

29. See also [UNITED STATES Usinor Industeel v. Leeco Steel Products, Inc., Federal District Court [Northern Dist. Illinois] 28 March 2002, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/020328u1.html>].

30. See United Nations Conference on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, Vienna, 10 March - 11 April 1980, Official Records, Documents of the Conference and Summary Records of the Plenary Meetings and of the Meetings of the Main Committee, 1981,17.

31. See CLOUT case No. 308 [AUSTRALIA Roder v. Rosedown, Federal District Court [Adelaide] 28 April 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/950428a2.html>]; CLOUT case No. 226 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Koblenz 16 January 1992, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/920116g1.html>].

32. In addition to the issues listed in art. 4, art. 5 provides that "the Convention does not apply to the liability of the seller for death or personal injury caused by the goods to any person." See Digest art. 5.

33. See [ARGENTINA Cámara Nacional de los Apelaciones en lo Comercial [Appellate Court] 14 October 1993, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/931014a1.html>].

34. See [BELGIUM Rechtbank van Koophandel [District Court] Hasselt 17 June 1998. available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980617b1.html>]; [BELGIUM Hof van Beroep [Appellate Court] Antwerpen 18 June 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/960618b1.html>]; [NETHERLANDS Gerechtshof [Appellate Court] Arnhem 22 August 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/950822n1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 105 [ICC Court of Arbitration, case No. 7197 of 1992, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/927197i1.html>].

35. See CLOUT case No. 47 [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Aachen 14 May 1993, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/930514g1.html>] (see full text of the decision).

36. See [AUSTRIA Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] 7 September 2000, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/000907a3.html>]; [AUSTRIA Oberster Gerichtsof [Supreme Court] 25 June 1998. available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980625a3.html>]; CLOUT case No. 269 [GERMANY Bundesgerichtshof [Federal Supreme Court] 12 February 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980212g1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 334 [SWITZERLAND Obergericht [Appellate Court] Thurgau 19 December 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/951219s1.html>]; [BELGIUM Tribunal de commerce [District Court] Nivelles 19 September 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/950919b1.html>] ; CLOUT case No. 132 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Hamm 8 February 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/950208g3.html>]; [SWITZERLAND Beziksgericht [District Court] Arbon 9 December 1994, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/941209s1.html>].

37. See CLOUT case No. 124 [GERMANY Bundesgerichshof [Federal Supreme Court] 15 February 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/950215g1.html>] (see full text of the decision).

38. See [AUSTRIA Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] 22 October 2001, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/011022a3.html>]; CLOUT case No. 378 [ITALY Tribunale [District Court] Vigevano 12 July 2000, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/000712i3.html>] (see full text of the decision); [GERMANY Amtsgericht [Lower Court] Duisburg 13 April 2000, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/000413g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 232 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] München 11 March 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980311g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 259 [SWITZERLAND Kantonsgericht [District Court] Freiburg 23 January 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980123g1.html>]; [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Hagen 15 October 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/971015g1.html>]; [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] München 6 May 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970506g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 273 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] München, case No. 2070/97, 9 July 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970709g1.html>] (see full text of the decision; CLOUT case No. 275 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Düsseldorf 11 July 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/960711g1.html>]; [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Duisburg 17 April 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/960417g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 289 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Stuttgart 21 August 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/950821g1.html>]; [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] München 20 March 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/950320g1.html>]; [NETHERLANDS Rechtbank [District Court] Middelburg 25 January 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/950125n1.html>]; [GERMANY Amtsgericht [Lower Court] Mayen 6 September 1994, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/940906g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 281 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Koblenz 17 September 1993, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/930917g1.html]; CLOUT case No. 125 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Hamm 9 June 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/950609g1.html>]; [NETHERLANDS Rechtbank [District Court] Roermond 6 May 1993, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/930506n1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 99 [NETHERLANDS Rechtbank [District Court] Arnhem 25 February 1993, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/930225n1.html>].

39. For the application of the Convention to set-off in respect of receivables arising out of contracts governed by the Convention, see [GERMANY Amtsgericht [Lower Court] Duisburg 13 April 2000, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/000413g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 273 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] München 9 July 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970709g1.html>] (see full text of the decision).

40. See [BELGIUM Rechtbank van Koophandel [District Court] Ieper 29 January 2001, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/010129b1.html>]; [AUSTRIA Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] 7 September 2000, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/000907a3.html>]; CLOUT case No. 378 [ITALY Tribunale [District Court] Vigevano 12 July 2000, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/000712i3.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 297 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] München 21 January 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980121g1.html>] (see full text of the decision); [AUSTRIA Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] 25 June 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980625a3.html>]; CLOUT case No. 345 [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Heilbronn 15 September 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970915g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 249 [SWITZERLAND Cour de Justice [Appellate Court] Genève 10 October 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/971010g1.html>] ; [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Düsseldorf 11 October 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/951011g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 125 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Hamm 9 June 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/950609g1.html>]; [ICC Court of Arbitration, case No. 7660 of 23 August 1994, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/947660i1.html>].

41. See CLOUT case No. 196 [SWITZERLAND Handelsgericht [Commercial Court] Zürich 26 April 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/950426s1.html>].

42. [SWITZERLAND Bundesgericht [Supreme Court] 11 July 2000, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/000711s1.html>].

43. See [AUSTRIA Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] 24 April 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970424a3.html>].

44. See CLOUT case No. 338 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Hamm 23 June 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980623g1.html>].

45. See [UNITED STATES Usinor Industeel v. Leeco Steel Products, Inc., Federal District Court [Northern Dist. Illinois] 28 March 2002, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/020328u1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 269 [GERMANY Bundesgerichtshof [Federal Supreme Court] 12 February 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980212g1.html>].

46. See [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] München 25 January 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/960125g1.html>].

47. [UNITED STATES Geneval Pharmaceuticals Tech. Corp. v. Barr Labs. Inc., Federal District Court [Southern Dist. New York] 10 May 2002, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/020510u1.html>] ; CLOUT case No. 420 [UNITED STATES Viva Vino v. Farnese Vini, Federal District Court [Eastern Dist. Pennsylvania] 29 August 2000, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/000829u1.html>].

48. [NETHERLANDS Rechtsbank [District Court] Amsterdam 5 October 1994, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/941005n1.html>].

49. See CLOUT case No. 230 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Karlsruhe 25 June 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970625g1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 94 [AUSTRIA Vienna Arbitration Award No. SCH-4318, 15 June 1994, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/940615a4.html>] ; CLOUT case No. 93 [AUSTRIA Vienna Arbitration Award No SCH-4366, 15 June 1994, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/940615a3.html>] (see full text of the decision); [NETHERLANDS Grechtshof [Appellate Court] s'Hertogenbosch 26 February 1992, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/920226n1.html>].

50. [UNITED STATES Usinor Industeel v. Leeco Steel Products, Inc., Federal District Court [Northern Dist. Illinois] 28 March 2002, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/020328u1.html>].

51. For a case expressly referring to the fact that the parties are free to choose the currency, since the Convention does not deal with the issue, see CLOUT case No. 84 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Frankfurt 20 April 1994, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/940420g1.html>]

52. See [AUSTRIA Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] 22 October 2001, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/011022a3.html>] ; CLOUT case No. 255 [SWITZERLAND Tribunal Cantonal [Appellate Court] Valais 30 June 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980630s1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 251 [SWITZERLAND Handelsgericht [Commercial Court] Zürich 30 November 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/981130s1.html>] (see full text of the decision).

53. CLOUT case No. 80 [GERMANY Kammergericht [Appellate Court] Berlin 24 January 1994, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/940124g1.html>]; see, however, [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] 24 March 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980324g1.html>], expressly stating that only a minority view holds that the Convention deals with the issue by resorting implicitly, i.e. by referring to the currency of the place of payment of the price.


Pace Law School Institute of International Commercial Law - Last updated October 7, 2009
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