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Article 30. Summary of Seller's Obligations

TEXT OF ARTICLE 30

The seller must deliver the goods, hand over any documents relating to them and transfer the property in the goods, as required by the contract and this Convention.


OUTLINE OF ISSUES

Reproduced with permission of UNCITRAL

30A Summary of seller's obligations under articles 30-44


DESCRIPTORS

Delivery ; Property in the goods


CASE ANNOTATIONS: UNCITRAL DIGEST CASES PLUS ADDED CASES

UNCITRAL has identified relevant cases in Digests containing case annotations for each article of the CISG. For Art. 30, the UNCITRAL Digest cites five cases: three from Germany, one each from Australia and France.

Presented below is a composite list of Art. 30 cases reporting these UNCITRAL Digest cases and other Art. 30 cases. All cases are listed in chronological sequence, commencing with the most recent. Asterisks identify the UNCITRAL Digest cases, commencing with the 22 September 1998 citation reported below. Cases are coded to the UNCITRAL Thesaurus.

English texts and full-text English translations of cases are provided as indicated. In most instances researchers can also access UNCITRAL abstracts and link to Unilex abstracts and full-text original-language case texts sourced from Internet websites and other data, including commentaries by scholars to the extent available.
 

Netherlands 29 July 2009 Rechtbank [District Court] Arnhem (___ v. Omnibus Trading B.V.)

Italy 16 February 2009 Tribunale di Forli [District Court] (Cisterns and accessories case) [translation available]
 

Italy 11 December 2008 Tribunale di Forli [District Court] (Mitias v. Solidea S.r.l.) [translation available]

Slovak Republic 29 April 2008 District Court Banska Bystrica (Timber case) [translation available]

Slovak Republic 10 March 2008 Regional Court Zilina (Stainless steel sheets case) 30A [translation available]

Slovak Republic 7 March 2008 District Court Banska Bystrica (Fruit and vegetables case) [translation available]

Germany 5 March 2008 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] München (Stolen car case) [translation available]

Slovak Republic 22 February 2008 District Court Banska Bystrica (Large capacity bags case) [translation available]
 

Slovak Republic 29 October 2007 District Court Bardejov (Glass chaton case) [translation available]

Slovak Republic 18 June 2007 Regional Court Zilina (Baked and confectionary goods case) [translation available]

Spain 16 May 2007 Tribunal Supremo [Supreme Court] (Water apparatus case)

Ukraine 13 April 2007 Commercial Court of Donetz Region (Crucible press case) [translation available]

Germany 21 March 2007 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Dresden (Stolen automobile case) 30A [translation available]

Slovak Republic 9 March 2007 Regional Court Bratislava (Blouses case) [translation available]

Slovak Republic 8 January 2007 Regional Court Zilina (Polyethelene case) 30A [translation available]
 

Russia 19 December 2006 Arbitration Award 35/2006

China December 2006 CIETAC Arbitration Award [CISG 2006/05] (Rabbit skin case) [translation available]

Switzerland 27 October 2006 Tribunal cantonal [Appellate Court] Valais (Bicycle and motorcycle parts case) [translation available]

Russia 20 October 2006 Arbitration Award 43/2006

China September 2006 CIETAC Arbitration Award [CISG 2006/09] (Apparel case) [translation available]

China September 2006 CIETAC Arbitration Award [CISG 2006/14] (Spare parts case) [translation available]

China July 2006 CIETAC Arbitration Award [CISG 2006/11] (Marble and granite case) [translation in process]

Slovak Republic 27 June 2006 District Court Nitra (Children's equipment case) [translation available]

Switzerland 23 May 2006 Tribunal cantonal [Higher Cantonal Court] Valais (Suits case) [translation available]

Slovak Republic 17 May 2006 District Court Nitra (Agricultural products case) [translation available]

China May 2006 CIETAC Arbitration Award [CISG 2006/06] (Canned oranges case) [translation available]

United States 4 April 2006 Federal District Court [New Jersey] (Valero Marketing v. Green Oy) 30A

Slovak Republic 27 February 2006 District Court Nitra (L.-K S.r.l. v. N. S.r.l.) [translation available]

China February 2006 CIETAC Arbitration Award [CISG 2006/16] (Fluorite case) [translation available]

Italy 10 January 2006 Tribunale [District Court] Padova (Merry-go-rounds case) [translation available]
 

China 26 December 2005 CIETAC Arbitration Award [CISG 2005/21] (Heating system device case) [translation available]

China December 2005 CIETAC Arbitration Award [CISG 2005/23] (Heat transfer oil furnace case) [translation available]

Poland 10 November 2005 Supreme Court (Furniture case)

Russia 27 October 2005 Arbitration Award 132/2004 [translation available]

Russia 18 October 2005 Arbitration Award 21/2005 (Varnish and paint machine case) [translation available]

Spain 26 September 2005 Audiencia Provincial [Appellate Court] Palencia (Printing machine case) [translation available]

Switzerland 19 September 2005 Kantonsgericht Wallis / Tribunal cantonal Valais [Canton Appellate Court]

China 22 August 2005 CIETAC Arbitration Award [CISG 2005/13] (Valve case) [translation available]

Ukraine 5 July 2005 Arbitration Award (Medical equipment case) 30A [translation available]

China 24 May 2005 Shanghai No. 2 Intermediate People's Court [District Court] (Medical products case) [translation available]

Spain 29 March 2005 Juzgado de primera instanc7ia [Court of First Instance] Tudela [translation available]

Russia 16 March 2005 Arbitration Award 75/2004 30A [translation available]

Belgium 31 January 2005 Rechtbank van Koophandel [Commerical Court] Hasselt (BV Wolvega Panelen v. NV FALL) [translation available]

Spain 31 January 2005 Audiencia Provincial [Appellate Court] Cuenca (Live calves case) [translation available]
 

Russia 21 December 2004 Arbitration Award 39/2003 30A [translation available]

Switzerland 3 November 2004 Tribunal Cantonal [Appellate Court] [translation available]

Germany 26 October 2004 Landgericht [District Court] Saarbrücken [translation available]

Italy 28 August 2004 Tribunale [District Court] Rovereto

France 30 June 2004 Cour de Cassation [Supreme Court] [translation available]

China June 2004 CIETAC Arbitration Award [CISG 2004/08] (Citric acid case) [translation available]

Switzerland 29 April 2004 Handelsgericht [Commercial Court] St. Gallen [translation available]

Italy 25 February 2004 Tribunale [District Court] Padova [translation available]

Russia 19 February 2004 Arbitration Award 65/2003 [translation available]
 

Ukraine 10 December 2003 Chamber of Commerce & Trade Arbitration proceeding 30A [translation available]

Switzerland 19 August 2003 Tribunal Cantonal [Appellate Court] Valais [translation available]

China 3 June 2003 CIETAC Arbitration Award [CISG/2003/01] (Clothes case) 30A [translation available]

Russia 16 April 2003 Arbitration Award No. 99/2002 [translation available]

Spain 24 March 2003 Audiencia Provincial [Appellate Court] Valencia

Russia 17 February 2003 Arbitration Award No. 168/2001 30A [translation available]

United States 29 January 2003 U.S. District Court [Illinois] (Ajax Tool Works v. Can-Eng Manufacturing)
 

China 18 December 2002 CIETAC Arbitration Award [CISG 2002/14] (Sausage casing case) [translation available]

Italy 26 November 2002 Tribunale [District Court] Rimini [translation available]

Germany 13 November 2002 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] München

Spain 3 October 2002 Audiencia Provincial [Appellate Court] Pontevedra 30A [digest available]

China 10 September 2002 Wuhan Maritime Court (Nanjing Resources Group v. Tian An Insurance Co. Ltd., Nanjing Branch) 30A [translation available]

Germany 22 August 2002 Landgericht [District Court] Freiburg [translation available]

Russia 6 August 2002 Arbitration Court [Appellate Court] for Western Siberia Region (Case No. F04/2712-494/A03-2002) [translation available]

Argentina 21 July 2002 Cámara Nacional de Apelaciones en lo Comercial [Appellate Court] [translation available]

Serbia 10 May 2002 Foreign Trade Court of Arbitration, Yugoslav Chamber of Commerce (Zinc coated tin case) 30A [abstract available]

Switzerland 11 April 2002 Tribunal Cantonal [Appellate Court] Vaud

Switzerland 25 February 2002 Kantonsgericht [District Court] Schaffhausen [translation available]

Russia 24 January 2002 Arbitration Award No. 27/2001 [translation available]
 

Germany 21 December 2001 Landgericht [District Court] Hamburg (Natural stones case) [translation available]

France 12 June 2001 Cour d’appel [Appellate Court] Colmar 30A [translation available]

Russia 30 May 2001 Arbitration Award No. 185/2000 30A [translation available]

China 19 February 2001 Jiangsu Higher People's Court [Appellate Court] (Tai Hei v. Shun Tian) 30A [translation available]

Russia 9 February 2001 Arbitration Award No. 161/2000 [translation available]
 

France 12 October 2000 Cour d'appel [Appellate Court] Paris

China 29 September 2000 Nantong Intermediate People's Court (Taihei Co., Japan v. Jiangsu Sainty International Group, Ltd Textile Import & Export Nantong Company)

Russia 24 August 2000 Arbitation Court [Appellate Court] for the Moscow Region [translation available]

Mexico 14 July 2000 Juzgado de Primera Instancia [Court of First Instance] Tijuana [translation available]

Russia 1 March 2000 Arbitration Court [Appellate Court] for Northwestern Region (Case No. A56-30792/99) 30A [translation available]
 

Germany 12 October 1999 Amtsgericht [Lower Court] Stendal

ICC June 1999 International Court of Arbitration, Case 9187 [English text]

Russia 17 May 1999 Arbitration award 342/1998 [translation available]

China 12 April 1999 CIETAC Arbitration Award [CISG/1999/22] (Bud rice dregs case) [translation available]

China 8 April 1999 CIETAC Arbitration Award CISG/1999/21] (New Zealand raw wool case) [translation available]

China 1 March 1999 CIETAC Arbitration Award [CISG/1999/12] (Canned mandarin oranges case) [translation available]

ICC March 1999 International Court of Arbitration, Case 9978 [English text]

China 1999 CIETAC Arbitration award [translation available]
 

Germany 29 December 1998 Hamburg Arbitration award [translation available]

Switzerland 30 November 1998 Handelsgericht [Commercial Court] Zürich [translation available]

* Germany 22 September 1998 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Oldenburg [translation available]

Switzerland 30 June 1998 Kantonsgericht Wallis / Tribunal cantonal Valais [Canton Appellate Court] (Granite stones case) [translation available]

Germany 23 June 1998 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Hamm 30A [translation available]

Russia 5 March 1998 Arbitration award 160/1997 30A [translation available]

* France 4 March 1998 Cour d’appel [Appellate Court] Paris [translation available]

Bulgaria 12 February 1998 Bulgaria Chamber of Commerce award, Case 11/1996 [translation available]

Russia 21 January 1998 Arbitration award 99/1997 30A [translation available]
 

Switzerland 24 December 1997 Tribunal Cantonal [Appellate Court] Vaud

France 18 December 1997 Tribunal de commerce [District Court] Colmar 30A [translation available]

China 27 October 1997 CIETAC Arbitration Award [CISG/1997/31] (Hot-rolled coils) [translation available]

Russia 29 September 1997 Arbitration award 470/1996 30A [translation available]

Switzerland 26 September 1997 Handelsgericht [Commercial Court] Aargau (Cutlery case) [translation available]

Hungary 1 July 1997 Fovárosi Bíróság [Metropolitan Court] [translation available]

China 25 June 1997 CIETAC Arbitration Award [CISG/1997/16] (Art paper case) 30A [translation available]

China 16 June 1997 CIETAC Arbitration Award [CISG/1997/15] (Leather case) [translation available]

Russia 13 May 1997 Arbitration award 3/1996 30A [translation available]

Russia 11 May 1997 Arbitration award 2/1995 30A [translation available]

Russia 11 April 1997 Arbitration award 220/1996 30A [translation available]

China 4 April 1997 CIETAC Arbitration Award [CISG/1997/04] (Black melon seeds case) [translation available]

Germany 8 January 1997 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Köln 30A [translation available]
 

China 18 November 1996 CIETAC Arbitration Award [CISG/1996/53] (Steel channels case) 30A [translation available]

China 9 August 1996 CIETAC Arbitration Award [CISG/1996/38] (China tableware case) [translation available]

China 9 August 1996 CIETAC Arbitration Award [CISG/1996/37] (Silk shirts case) 30A [translation available]

China 6 August 1996 CIETAC Arbitration Award [CISG/1996/35] (Lacquer handicraft case) [translation available]

Switzerland 31 May 1996 Arbitration ZHK 273/1995 [Zürich Chamber of Commerce] [English text]

China 30 April 1996 CIETAC Arbitration Award [CISG/1996/20] (Jacks and bearing brackets case) 30A [translation available]

Germany 3 April 1996 Bundesgerichtshof [Federal Supreme Court] [translation available]

Switzerland 11 March 1996 Tribunal Cantonal [Appellate Court] Vaud [01 93 0661]

Switzerland 11 March 1996 Tribunal Cantonal [Appellate Court] Vaud [01 93 1061] [translation available]

China 8 March 1996 CIETAC Arbitration Award [CISG/1996/13] (Horsebean case) 30A [translation available]

Austria 6 February 1996 Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] [translation available]
 

Argentina 31 October 1995 Cámara Nacional de Apelaciones en lo Comercial [Appellate Court]

Germany 21 September 1995 Landgericht [District Court] Kassel [translation available]

China 18 September 1995 Chansha Intermediate People's Court Economic Chamber (Skandinaviska v. Hunan Co) 30A [translation available]

Germany 10 May 1995 Landgericht [District Court] Landshut

* Australia 28 April 1995 Federal District Court, Adelaide (Roder v. Rosedown)
 

China December 1994 Fujian Higher People's Court (San Ming v. Zhanshou Metallic Minerals) [translation available]

Germany 25 October 1994 Landgericht [District Court] Darmstadt

China September 1994 CIETAC Arbitration award

China August 1994 Xiamen Intermediate People's Court (San Ming v. Zhanzhou Metallic Minerals)

China 11 April 1994 CIETAC Arbitration Award [CISG/1994/06] (Old paper case) 30A [translation available]

Argentina 18 March 1994 Juzgado Nacional de Primera Instancia en lo Comercial [National Commercial Court of First Instance]

Germany 2 March 1994 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] München [translation available]
 

Austria 30 April 1992 Landesgericht [District Court] Graz

* Germany 16 January 1992 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Koblenz

ICC 1992 International Court of Arbitration, Case 7153 [translation available]

ICC 1992 International Court of Arbitration, Case 7197
 

* Germany 17 September 1991 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Frankfurt [translation available]


CASE DIGEST AND ANALYSIS
-   UNCITRAL's case law digest; and
-   An analysis of CISG jurisprudence

The UNCITRAL Digest of case law on the United
Nations Convention on the International Sale of Goods
[*]

A/CN.9/SER.C/DIGEST/CISG/30 [8 June 2004]
Reproduced with the permission of UNCITRAL

[Text of Article 30
Digest of Article 30 case law
-    Meaning and purpose of the provision
-    Obligation to deliver
-    Obligation to hand over documents
-    Obligation to transfer property
-    Other obligations]
ARTICLE 30

The seller must deliver the goods, hand over any documents relating to them and transfer the property in the goods, as required by the contract and this Convention.

DIGEST OF ARTICLE 30 CASE LAW

Meaning and purpose of the provision

1. Article 30 states and summarises the main duties which the seller is obliged to fulfil. The seller, however, is equally bound to perform any additional obligation provided for in the contract or by any usage or practice between the parties, such as a contractual duty to deliver exclusively to the buyer.[1]

Obligation to deliver

2. The seller is obliged to deliver the goods. In several instances the parties specified the duty to deliver the goods by using one of the Incoterms which then prevails over the rules of the Convention.[2]

Obligation to hand over documents

3. The Convention obliges the seller to hand over the documents concerning the goods but does not itself establish a duty of the seller to issue certain documents on the goods.

Obligation to transfer property

4. Although the Convention "is not concerned with the effect which the contract may have on the property in the goods sold" (art. 4(b)), the seller’s principal obligation is to transfer the property of the goods sold to the buyer. Whether such effect has been achieved and whether property passed is not a question governed by the Convention but has to be determined according to the law designated by the rules of private international law of the forum. Also the effect of a retention of title clause on the property in the goods is not a matter governed by the Convention,[3] rather, the law designated by the rules of private international law of the forum applies. However, one court stated that whether such clause has been validly agreed upon in the sales contract and whether an alleged retention of title constitutes a breach of contract has to be determined according to the rules of the Convention.[4]

Other obligations

5. The Convention itself provides for further obligations imposed upon the seller not mentioned in article 30, such as those arising out of Chapter V (arts. 71-88), that relates to obligations common to the buyer and the seller. Additional obligations may also derive from usages or practices established between the parties (art. 9).


FOOTNOTES

* The present text was prepared using the full text of the decisions cited in the Case Law on UNCITRAL Texts (CLOUT) abstracts and other citations listed in the footnotes. The abstracts are intended to serve only as summaries of the underlying decisions and may not reflect all the points made in the digest. Readers are advised to consult the full texts of the listed court and arbitral decisions rather than relying solely on the CLOUT abstracts.

[Citations to cisgw3 case presentations have been substituted [in brackets] for the case citations provided in the UNCITRAL Digest. This substitution has been made to facilitate online access to CLOUT abstracts, original texts of court and arbitral decisions, and full text English translations of these texts (available in most but not all cases). For citations UNCITRAL had used, go to <http://www.uncitral.org/english/clout/digest_cisg_e.htm>.]

1. See, e.g., [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Frankfurt 17 September 1991, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/910917g1.html>].

2. Compare, e.g., CLOUT case No. 244 [FRANCE Cour d’appel [Appellate Court] Paris 4 March 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980304f1.html>] (Incoterm EXW used) (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 340 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Oldenburg 22 September 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980922g1.html>] (Incoterm DDP used).

3. CLOUT case No. 226 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Koblenz 16 January 1992, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/920116g1.html>].

4. CLOUT case No. 308 [AUSTRALIA Roder v. Rosedown [Federal Court] Adelaide 28 April 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/950428a2.html>].


ANALYSIS OF CISG CASE LAW

Reprinted by special permission of Northwestern University School of Law. 34 Northwestern Journal of International Law and Business (Winter 2004) 299-440.[*]

excerpt from

The Interpretive Turn in International Sales Law:
An Analysis of Fifteen Years of CISG Jurisprudence

Larry A. DiMatteo, Lucien Dhooge, Stephanie Greene,
Virginia Maurer and Marisa Pagnattaro

[...]

A. The Duty of Delivery

The CISG requires the seller to "deliver the goods, hand over any documents relating to them and transfer the property in the goods, as required by the contract."[513] The CISG specifies the seller's obligations with respect to the place for delivery, arranging for the carriage of goods and their insurance, the time of delivery, and the time and place at which documents are to be handed over. These obligations are set forth in Articles 30-34.

As noted in Part II, an underlying principle of the CISG is the continuance of the contractual relationship. Some commentators have noted that Article 30 contains "the beginnings of an obligation to cooperate."[514] The Article 30 obligation is general and references the actual agreement of the parties and the particulars of national law. It "states the obvious,"[515] that the seller must deliver the goods, a principle of sales law that is near universal, for "there is no sale without delivery and transfer of property."[516] Article 4 excludes from the scope of the CISG "the effect which the contract may have on the property in the goods sold."[517] Thus, the duty to transfer the property in the goods under Article 30 is subject to [page 384] the requirements of national law with respect to property rights in goods.[518]

Article 31 addresses the circumstance in which the contract does not specify the place of delivery. [519] In most transactions, these terms are specified by the use of customary delivery terms as provided by INCOTERMS.[520] In the absence of such a specification, Article 31 serves as a "gap-filling" provision. If the contract requires delivery to a carrier, then the seller's obligation of delivery is satisfied by its handing the goods over to the first carrier.[521] If delivery of the goods does not involve carriage, but the contract relates to specific goods, goods yet to be identified, or goods to be manufactured at a specific place of which the parties were aware at the time of the contract such as a warehouse or a manufacturing facility, then delivery is accomplished by "placing the goods at the buyer's disposal at that place."[522] In other cases the seller's obligation with respect to the place of delivery is met by "placing the goods at the buyer's disposal at the place where the seller had his place of business at the time of the conclusion of the contract."[523]

The seller's obligations with respect to the carriage of the goods depend upon its obligations for carriage provided in the contract. Normally, these obligations are implicated by the use of INCOTERMS or customary delivery clauses. Article 32 of the CISG requires that if the seller hands goods over to a carrier, then he must give notice of consignment specifying the goods to the buyer, unless the goods are clearly identified to the contract by markings on the goods or shipping documents. There is no obligation to mark the goods apart from those mandated in the contract. [524] If the seller is obligated by the shipping terms to arrange for carriage of the goods, he must "make such contracts as are necessary for carriage to the place fixed by means of transportation appropriate to the circumstances and according [page 385] to the usual terms for such transportation."[525] Finally, if delivery terms do not require the seller to obtain insurance of the goods during carriage, then he must nonetheless provide buyer with "all available information necessary to enable him to effect such insurance."[526]

The time for delivery of the goods is an integral part of the delivery obligation. Article 33 requires the seller to deliver the goods on the date "fixed by or determinable from the contract."[527] Or, if a period of time is specified within which the goods are to be delivered, the seller can deliver the goods at any time within that period, "unless circumstances indicate that the buyer is to choose a date."[528] A final "gap filling" provision permits the seller to meet his obligation with respect to the time of delivery by delivery within a reasonable time after the conclusion of the contract. [529]

The contract may -- by its specific terms or by its reference to customary terms such as INCOTERMS -- require the seller to hand over documents, such as bills of lading, warehouse receipts, insurance certificates, invoices, or certificates of origin, necessary for the buyer to take possession of the goods. In that event, the seller is required by the CISG to hand over the documents relating to the goods "at the time and place and in the form required by the contract"[530] If the seller hands over the documents prior to that time, "he may, up to that time, cure any lack of conformity in the documents, if [doing so] does not cause the buyer unreasonable inconvenience or unreasonable expense." [531]

Finally, the seller has a further obligation to the buyer to preserve goods under circumstances in which the buyer has delayed in taking delivery of the goods, or where delivery of the goods and payment for them are concurrent obligations and the buyer fails to pay the price. Seller is obligated to take reasonable steps to preserve the goods and can withhold delivery until the payment of any reasonable expenses incurred in preserving them.[532] [page 386]

[...]


FOOTNOTES

* For a subsequent text on this subject by these authors, see Larry A. DiMatteo, Lucien Dhooge, Stephanie Greene, Virginia Maurer & Marisa Pagnattaro, "International Sales Law: A Critical Analysis of CISG Jurisprudence", Cambridge University Press (2005) 241 p.

[...]

513. CISG, supra note 4, at art. 30.

514. Enderlein & Maskow, supra note 20, at 127.

515. The purpose of Article 30 is to set the stage for the more particularized rules on delivery and the required character of the goods set forth in the succeeding chapters.

516. Dubrovnik Lectures, supra note 512, at 144.

517. CISG, supra note 4, at art. 4(b)

518. While the custom in Anglo-American and Roman legal systems is that title in identified goods passes on the conclusion of the contract and in generic goods at the time of identification to the contract, other legal systems vary in this respect. See Enderlein & Maslow, supra note 20, at 128. The lex sitae is a commonly applied conflict of law rule, and transfer of property under the law of the seller's country is effective even if not all conditions are satisfied for transfer of property under the law of the buyer's country. Id.

519. CISG, supra note 4, at art. 67 (providing the default rule for the transfer of risk of loss).

520. INCOTERMS is a manual of 13 trade terms published by the International Chamber of Commerce. The most recent revision of Incoterms was issued in 2000. See generally, Jan Ramberg, ICC Guide to Incoterms 2000 (1999).

521. CISG, supra note 4, at art. 3(a).

522. Id. at art. 31(b).

523. Id. at art. 31(c); see also Enderlein & Maskow, supra note 20, at 134 (describing the circumstances which have to be taken into account, including the category and quantity of the goods, their packaging, the distance which will have to be covered by transport, the available means of transport, and existing transport routes").

524. Dubrovnik Lectures, supra note 512, at 149.

525. CISG, supra note 4, at art. 32(2).

526. Id. at art. 32(3).

527. Id. at art. 33(a).

528. Id. at art. 33(b).

529. Id. at art. 33(c). In normal commerce, however, the seller gives the buyer notice of the consignment. See, e.g., Audiencia Provincial de Barcelona, 755/95-C section 16, Jun. 20, 1997 (Sp.), available at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970620s4.html> [English translation by Mariana Mendoza, translation edited by Patricia Rincón Martín].

530. CISG, supra note 4, at art. 34.

531. Id.

532. CISG, supra note 4, at art. 85. See infra Part VI.C.5. Few cases have been decided under this article. See ICA Arbitral Tribunal 387/1995, Feb. 10, 2000, supra note 506.

[...]

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