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Article 96. Declaration Preserving Domestic Formalities: Written Form


A Contracting State whose legislation requires contracts of sale to be concluded in or evidenced by writing may at any time make a declaration in accordance with article 12 that any provision of article 11, article 29, or Part II of this Convention, that allows a contract of sale or its modification or termination by agreement or any offer, acceptance, or other indication of intention to be made in any form other than in writing, does not apply where any party has his place of business in that State.


[See analysis of articles 11 and 12, supra ]


Final provisions ; Declaration, Art. 96


United States 21 July 2010 Federal Appellate Court [3rd Circuit] (Forestal Guarani S.A. v. Daros International, Inc.)

Austria 17 December 2003 Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] [translation available]

Russia 20 March 2002 Presidium of Supreme Court (Resolution No. 6134/01) [translation available]

Austria 22 October 2001 Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] [1 Ob 77/01g] [translation available]

Netherlands 12 July 2001 Arrondissementsrechtbank [District Court] Rotterdam [translation available]

Lithuania 27 March 2000 Lietuvos Apeliacinio [Appellate Court]

Russia 10 June 1999 Arbitration award 55/1998 [translation available]

Russia 16 February 1998 High Arbitration Court: Information Letter 29

Netherlands 7 November 1997 Hoge Raad [Supreme Court]

Hungary 17 June 1997 Fovárosi Bíróság [Metropolitan Court]

Russia 25 March 1997 Presidium of Supreme Court of Russian Federation (Resolution No. 4670/96) 12A [translation available]

Russia 1997 High Arbitration Court [Ruling No. 4, case 2]

China 6 September 1996 CIETAC Arbitration Award [CISG/1996/42]

Netherlands 5 June 1996 Gerechtshof [Appellate Court] Leeuwarden

Mexico 29 April 1996 Compromex Arbitration proceeding (Conservas La Costeña v. Lanín) [translation available]

Russia 1 December 1995 Arbitration award 22/1995 [translation available]

Belgium 2 May 1995 Rechtbank van koophandel [District Court] Hasselt

Netherlands 11 August 1994 Arrondissementsrechtbank [District Court] Leeuwarden

United States 15 June 1993 U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals [5th Circ.] (Beijing Metals v. American Business Center)

Hungary 24 March 1992 Fovárosi Biróság [Metropolitan Court] (Adadamfi Video v. Alkotók StudiósaKisszövetkezet)

Germany 17 September 1991 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Frankfurt [translation available]

Italy 24 October 1988 Corte di Cassazione [Supreme Court] (Kretschmer v. Muratori Enzo)

Pace Law School Institute of International Commercial Law - Last updated September 27, 2010
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